Plant Breeding and Genetics

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BHAGYESWARI BEHERA

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Course Name :
Plant breeding and Genetics

Code(Credit) : CUTM1440(3-1-0)

Course Objectives

• This course examines the application of genetic principles to plant improvement.
• Topics include breeding objectives, mating systems, selection, testing and germplasm maintenance of horticultural and crop plants.

Learning Outcomes

The anticipated knowledge, skills and/or attitude to be developed by the student are:

1. Describe sources and types of genetic variation and explain their importance for plant improvement.

2. Locate, analyse, evaluate and synthesise information relevant to plant breeding.
3. Carry out specific plant breeding activities, such as selection of parental germplasm, servation and recording of phenotypic variation and selection among progeny.

Course Syllabus

Plant Breeding and Genetics
Module-I Genetics:
Gene concept, allelism and fine structure of gene. Mendelism and deviation of mendelian ratios, epistasis, linkage and crossing over. Incomplete and complete linkage.

Practice: 1. Study of chromosome mapping with point test crosses data.
Practice 2: Karyotyping using photographs
Module-II Genome mapping:
Sex-linked inheritance, Nuclear and cytoplasmic genome organization, Maternal effect, genome imprinting, two point cross, three point test cross and chromosome mapping, tetrad analysis, extra chromosomal inheritance.Cytoplasmic male sterility.

Module-III
Chromosomal aberrations

Structural aberration: duplication, deficiency, inversion and translocations heterozygotes; numerical chromosome aberrations: aneuploids: trisomics and monosomics; euploids: autopolyploids, allopolyploids, role polyploidy in speciation with reference to triticum and brassica. Polyploids, haploids, aneuploids and their utility. Chromosome variation and evolution.

Practice:3. Induction of Polyploidy by Colchine.

Module-IV Population Genetics:
Populations, Gene pool, Gene frequency; Hardy-Weinberg Law; concepts and rate of change in gene frequency through natural selection, migration and random genetic drift .
Module V: Mutagenesis:
DNA damage and repair mechanisms, Spontaneous and induced mutations and their molecular mechanisms, physical and chemical mutagens, transposable elements and mechanism of transposition.
Module VI: Introduction to breeding:
Natural breeding systems in plants, genetic diversity in plant breeding; Conventional breeding methods for self, cross-pollinated and vegetative propagated crop plants.
Practice: 4. Demonstration of cross hybridization process in selected plant species.

Module VII: Tools in plant breeding:
Heterosis breeding; polyploidy and haploid breeding; Cytogenetic tools in plant breeding, Genetic crossing, Molecular markers-RAPD, ISSR, SSR, SNPs, Bulk-segregate analysis, Back-cross breeding. Marker Assisted selection – Foreground and background selection – MAS for major and minor genes – Marker assisted pyramiding.
Practice:5. To amplify the supplied DNA sample by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers.
Practice 6. To amplify the supplied DNA sample using SSR markers.
Text Books & Reference Book:

1. Lewin, B. (2004). Gene VIII. Person-Prentice Hall, London.
2. Pierce, B. A. (2006). Genetics: A Conceptual Approach. W. H. Freeman, New York.
3. George Acquaah, "Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding ". Wiley Blackwell.
4. Allard RW. 1981. Principles of Plant Breeding. John Wiley & Sons.
5. Chopra VL. 2004. Plant Breeding. Oxford & IBH.
6. Gupta SK. 2005. Practical Plant Breeding.Agribios.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0033756071902730
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1004162323428

Session 3 (Practice-1)

Session 8

Nuclear and cytoplasmic genome organization and extra chromosomal inheritance.
https://www.slideshare.net/hhalhaddad/281-lec7-genomeorganization

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p4c7hzrytwY

Session 13 (Practice-2)

Karyotyping using photographs

<a http://www.biology.arizona.edu/human_bio/activities/karyotyping/karyotyping.html

http://www.biology.arizona.edu/human_bio/activities/karyotyping/karyotyping.html

Session 17

Mutation and types(Spontaneous and induced) and theeir molecuar mechanism.
https://www.slideshare.net/sreerajsree/spontaneous-and-induced-mutations
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9bWjuwTiYXI

Session 20

Population genetics – Populations, Gene pool, Gene frequency.
<a href="https://www.slideshare.net/NawfalAldujaily/

<a

https://cropgenebank.sgrp.cgiar.org/images/file/learning_space/molecular_markers/volume2/02_Populationgenetics.pdf

Session 21

Hardy-Weinberg Law; concepts and rate of change in gene frequency through natural selectionhttps://www.cs.cmu.edu/~genetics/units/instructions/instructions-PGE.pdf.

Session 22

Migration and random genetic drift .
<a href="http://www.csun.edu/~dgray/Evol322/Chapter7.pdf

Session 23

Session 26 (Practice-4)

Demonstration of cross hybridization process in selected plant species.https://peppergeek.com/plant-breeding-methods/
<a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1111/tpj.14678

">https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1111/tpj.14678

session 29 (Practice-5)

To amplify the supplied DNA sample by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/probe/docs/techrapd/

https://bestprizesday2.life/?u=tqck80z&o=zdqr96x&t=drop

Session 33 (Practice-6)

Session 34

Case Studies

Case Studies

Our Main Teachers

BHAGYESWARI BEHERA

Assistant Professor, Department of Botany, School of Applied Science, Centurion University of Technology and Management
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Have specialization in Biochemistry and Molecular biology. Qualified GATE and NET. Research interest in Biochemistry, Microbiology and taxonomy. Teaching expertise in subject Cell biology, molecular biology, Biochemistry, Genetics, Plant physiology and metabolism.