Optics and Optical fibres

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Code(Credit) : CUTM1007(2-1-0)

Course Objectives

• To understand different phenomena like Reflection, Refraction, Interference, Diffraction and Polarization.
• To gain knowledge on the properties of Laser and its applications.
• To learn about optical fibers , their properties & applications.

Course Outcomes

Course outcomes

 COs Course outcomes - After completion of this course, the students will be able to: CO1 Explain the concept of Reflection & Refraction in mirrors and lenses CO2 Understand the phenomenon of interference and apply it to Young’s double-slit & Newton’s ring experiment CO3 Describe the phenomenon of Diffraction and Polarization. CO4 Explain the properties of Laser and its applications in different fields. CO5 Identify different types of optical fibers , their properties & applications.

Course Syllabus

Module I: Reflection and Refraction (Derivation is not required)

Reflection at a plane surface, reflection at spherical mirrors, Paraxial rays and approximation. Sign convention, Location of the image formation, Spherical mirror equation, Refraction, Total internal reflection, Dispersion by a prism, Refraction through a prism.

Practice: 1

To determine the refractive index of a glass slab using a traveling microscope.

Module II: Lenses (Derivation is not required

Definition, Types of Lenses, Terminology associated with the Lens, Sign Convention, Location of the image formation by graphical method for Lenses, Lens formula.

Practice: 2

To determine the dispersive power and Cauchy constants of the material of a prism using mercury source.

Module III: Interference (Derivation is not required)

Superposition principle, the definition of Interference, Coherence, Young’s double-slit experiment, Newton’s rings theory- Determination of wavelength of light.

Practice: 3

Newtons Ring,s-Refractive index of the liquid

Module IV: Diffraction and Polarization  (Derivation is not required)

Types of diffraction, Fraunhofer diffraction at a single sit, Diffraction at N-parallel slits (plane diffraction grating).Polarisation, Types of polarized light and their representation, Brewster LawTo verify Brewster's law and to find Brewster's angle. Malus Law, polarization by double refraction, polarimeter, Applications of polarized light.

Practice: 4

To find the grating element of a plane transmission diffraction grating.

Module V: Optical Properties and Laser

Scattering, refraction, reflection, absorption & transmission, Introduction to optoelectronics, Concept of Light Emitting Diode, Stimulated and spontaneous emission, Basic principle of Lasers, Population inversion, Laser Pumping, Different levels of the laser system, Ruby Laser, Applications of Lasers (Medicine, Metrology, Defenses, Nuclear energy, in communication, in the consumer electronics industry)

Practice: 5

Wave length of LASER source by diffraction grating method

Module VI: Optical Fibers

Introduction to fiber optics, the structure of optical fibers, classification of optical fibers on the variation of refractive index, Classification of optical fibers on the variation of the mode of transmission/core diameter, Numerical Aperture, Acceptance angle. Principle of optical fibers communication, optical communication (block diagram only),

Practice: 6

To find the numerical aperture of a given optic fiber and hence to find its acceptance angle.

Module VII: Optical Fibers

Attenuation in optical fibers (Qualitative only-Scattering losses, Absorption losses, bending loses). Fiber Materials-Glass fibers, Plastic fibers, Light sources for fiber optics,V-number of an optical fiber, optical fiber cables design, optical fiber connection, fiber splices, fiber connectors.Application of optical fibers- Cable TV, Networking, Power companies, Imaging,Sensors, Medical (Dental surgery, Endoscopy, Surgery)

Practice: 7

Measurement of bending loss.

Text Books:

1. A Text-Book of Optics by M.N. Avadhanulu, Brij Lal, N. Subrahmanyam, S Chand; 23rd Rev. Edn. [Module I&II]
2. Engineering Physics, by D.Thirupathi Naidu, M.Veeranjaneyulu, V.G.S Book links,2017.[Module-III,IV]
3. Principles of Engineering Physics-2 by Md.Khan, S.Panigrahi, Cambridge University Press 2016. [module-V, VI&VII]

Reference Books:

1. Optics by Ajoy Ghatak, McGraw Hill Education; 6 edition, 2017.

2.  Physics-I for engineering degree students byB.B. Swain and K.Jena.

3.Concepts in Engineering Physics by I Md. N. Kha, 2016.

Session 2

Paraxial rays and approximation. Sign convention, Location of the image formation, Spherical mirror equation,

https://www.slideshare.net/negi4229/image-fomation-by-sperical-mirror

Session 4

Practice-1(2hours)

To determine the refractive index of a glass slab using a traveling microscope.

Session 5

Definition, Types of Lenses, Terminology associated with the Lens, Sign Convention

https://www.slideshare.net/itutor/lenses-22475464

Session 6

Location of the image formation by graphical method for Lenses, Lens formula.

https://www.slideshare.net/felixbunagan/image-formation-in-lens

Session 7

Practice-2(2hours)

To determine the dispersive power and Cauchy constants of the material of a prism using mercury source.

Session 8

Superposition principle, the definition of Interference, Coherence

Session 10

Practice: 3(2hours)

Newton's Rings-Refractive index of the liquid.

http://vlab.amrita.edu/?sub=1&brch=189&sim=1520&cnt=1

Session 11

Types of diffraction, Fraunhofer diffraction at a single sit,

Diffraction at N-parallel slits (plane diffraction grating)

Session 12

Practice: 4(2hours)

To find the grating element of a plane transmission diffraction grating.

Session 15

Scattering, refraction, reflection, absorption & transmission, Introduction to optoelectronics, Concept of Light Emitting Diode

https://www.slideshare.net/ChintanMorsiya/optical-properties-71404985

Session 16

Stimulated and spontaneous emission, Basic principle of Lasers, Population inversion, Laser Pumping,

https://www.slideshare.net/krishslide/lasers-39462492

Session 17

Different levels of the laser system, Ruby Laser, Applications of Lasers (Medicine, Metrology, Defenses, Nuclear energy, in communication, in the consumer electronics industry)

https://www.slideshare.net/JyotiSingh28/types-of-laser-75045103

https://www.slideshare.net/dhrupal1067/laser-applications

Session 18

Practice: 5(2hours)

The wavelength of the LASER source by diffraction grating method

Session 19

Introduction to fiber optics, the structure of optical fibers, classification of optical fibers on the variation of refractive index

https://www.slideshare.net/subrata11/optical-fiber-55382806

https://www.slideshare.net/juhikamnani/fiber-optics-70240266

Session 20

Classification of optical fibers on the variation of the mode of transmission/core diameter

Session 21

Numerical Aperture, Acceptance angle. Principle of optical fibers communication, optical communication (block diagram only)

https://www.slideshare.net/rahulohlan14/optical-fiber-communiction-system

Session 22

Practice: 6(2hours)

To find the numerical aperture of a given optic fiber and hence to find its acceptance angle

http://vlab.amrita.edu/?sub=1&brch=189&sim=343&cnt=1

Session 25

Fiber materials-glass fibers, Plastic fibers, Light sources for fiber optics

Session 26

V-number of an optical fiber, optical fiber cables design, optical fiber connection, fiber splices, fiber connectors.

Session 27

Application of optical fibers- Cable TV, Networking, Power companies, Imaging,          Sensors, Medical (Dental surgery, Endoscopy, Surgery)

https://www.slideshare.net/sathishsak/endoscopy-82816596

Case Studies

Subhraraj Panda

TEACHER
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Dr.Subhraraj Panda is working as an Associate Professor of Physics in Centurion University of Technology and Management, Bhubaneswar, Odisha since 2008 and has 19 years of experience in teaching. He had his Ph.D. from Ravenshaw University, Cuttack in 2019 and got eight years of research experience. His research interests are fluid and molecular acoustic He […]

Dr. Nibedita Nayak

Assistant Professor
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Dr. Nibedita Nayak is working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Physics, School of Applied Sciences, Bhubaneswar Campus of Centurion University of Technology and Management, Odisha. She completed her Ph.D from Berhampur University in 2018. She is working on computational tools and new material development. She has more than six years of […]

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Dr. Prasanta Kumar Rath

Asst. Professor
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Dr Prasanta Kumar Rath has done his M.Sc in Physics having Nuclear Physics Special  from Sambalpur University, Odisha,  He has done his PhD in Experimental Nuclear Physics from The MSU, Baroda in Collaboration with BARC & TIFR , Mumbai under the guidance of Prof. N.L.Singh and Dr S. Santra. He has also obtained his Postdoc experience from INFN , Italy. His research area focuses on Experimental Nuclear Physics, Nuclear radiation detectors, Accelerator Physics.

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