Pharmacology and Toxicology


Dharmendra Pradhan


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Course Name :Pharmacology and Toxicology

Code(Credit) : DCPY1203(3-3-0)

Course Objectives

The main purpose of the subject is to understand what drugs do to the living organisms and how their effects can be applied to therapeutics. The subject covers the information about the drugs like, mechanism of action, physiological and biochemical effects (pharmacodynamics) as well as absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (pharmacokinetics) along with the adverse effects, clinical uses, interactions, doses, contraindications and routes of administration of different classes of drugs.

Learning Outcomes

Upon completion of this course the student should be able to

  • Understand the pharmacological actions of different categories of drugs
  • Explain the mechanism of drug action at organ system/sub cellular/ macromolecular
  • Apply the basic pharmacological knowledge in the prevention and treatment of various
  • Observe the effect of drugs on animals by simulated experiments
  • Appreciate correlation of pharmacology with other bio medical sciences

Course Syllabus

 Introduction to pharmacology, scope of pharmacology.


Routes of administration of drugs, their advantages and disadvantages. Various processes of absorption of drugs and the factors affecting them. Metabolism, distribution and excretion of drugs.


General mechanism of drugs action and their factors which modify drugs action. Pharmacological classification of drugs. The discussion of drugs should emphasize the following aspects:


Drugs acting on the central Nervous system:


General anaesthetics- adjunction to anaesthesia, intravenous anaesthetics. Analgesic antipyretics and non-steroidal

Anti-inflammatory drugs- Narcotic analgesics. Antirheumatic and anti-gout remedies.

Sedatives and Hypnotics, psychopharmacological agents, anticonvulsants, analeptics. Centrally acting muscle relaxants and anti parkinsonism agents.

Local anesthetics.

Drugs acting on autonomic nervous system.

Cholinergic drugs, Anticholinergic drugs, anticholinesterase drugs. Adrenergic drugs and adrenergic receptor blockers.

Neurone blockers and ganglion blockers. Neuromuscular blockers, used in myasthenia gravis.

Drugs acting on eye: Mydriatics, drugs used in glaucoma.


Drugs acting on respiratory system

Respiratory stimulants, Bronchodilators, Nasal decongestants, Expectorants and Antitussive agents.


Autocoids: physiological role of histamine and serotonin, Histamine and Antihistamines, prostaglandins.


Cardio vascular drugs

Cardiotonics, Antiarrhythmic agents, Anti-anginal agents, Antihypertensive agents, peripheral Vasodilators and drugs used in atherosclerosis.

Drugs acting on the blood and blood forming organs. Haematinics, coagulants and anticoagulants, Haemostatic , Blood substitutes and plasma expanders.


Drugs affecting renal function- Diuretics and anti-diuretics.


Hormones and hormone antagonists- Hypoglycemic agents, Anti--thyroid drugs, sex hormones and oral contraceptives , corticosteroids.


Drugs acting on digestive system-carminatives, digest ants, Bitters, Antacids and drugs used in peptic ulcer, purgatives ,and laxatives, Antidiarrohoeals, Emetics, Anti-emetics, Antispasmodics.


Chemotherapy of microbial diseases:

Urinary antiseptics, sulphonamides, penicillin, streptomycin, Tetracyclines and other antibiotics. Anti- tubercular agents, Antifungal agents, antiviral drugs, anti-leprotic drugs.

Chemotherapy of protozoal diseases, Anthelmintic drugs. Chemotherapy of cancer.



Disinfectants and antiseptics.

Recommended Books

1. Rang H. P., Dale M. M., Ritter J. M., Flower R. J., Rang and Dale’s
Pharmacology,.Churchil Livingstone Elsevier
2. Katzung B. G., Masters S. B., Trevor A. J., Basic and clinical pharmacology, Tata Mc
3. Goodman and Gilman’s, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics
4. Marry Anne K. K., Lloyd Yee Y., Brian K. A., Robbin L.C., Joseph G. B., Wayne A.
K., Bradley R.W., Applied Therapeutics, The Clinical use of Drugs, The Point Lippincott
Williams &Wilkins
5. Mycek M.J, Gelnet S.B and Perper M.M. Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews-

Session Plan

Session 1

Introduction to pharmacology



scope of pharmacology


session 3

Introduction to pharmacology


session 4

Routes of administration of drugs


session 5

Routes of administration of drugs, their advantages and disadvantages


session 6

Various processes of absorption

The process of drug absorption

session 7

absorption of drugs and the factors affecting

Factores affecting drug absorption


Transport of drugs through membranes

Passage of unchanged drug through a membrane

session 9



session 10



session 11



session 12

factors which modify drugs action

Factors affecting drug response2

session 13

General mechanism of drugs action

Factors affecting drug response

session 14



session 15

factors which modify drugs action -pharmacodyanmics


session 15

factors which modify drugs action -pharmacodyanmics


session 16

General anaesthetics

general anaesthetics

session 17

adjunction to anaesthesia, intravenous anaesthetics

general anaesthesia

session 18


session 19


session 20


session 21

psychopharmacological agents

session 22

Sedatives and Hypnotics

session 23

Sedatives and Hypnotics

session 24


session 25


session 26

Analgesic antipyretics

session 27

Analgesic antipyretics

session 28

Centrally acting muscle relaxants

session 29

antiparkinsonism agents

session 30

antiparkinsonism agents

session 31

Local anesthetics

session 32

Local anesthetics

session 33

Drugs acting on autonomic nervous system

session 34

Drugs acting on autonomic nervous system

session 35

Cholinergic drugs

session 36

Cholinergic drugs

session 37

Anticholinergic drugs

session 38

Anticholinergic drugs

session 39

Adrenergic drugs

session 40

adrenergic drugs

session 41

Adrenergic drugs

session 42

Adrenergic drugs

session 43

Adrenergic drugs

session 44

Adrenergic drugs

session 45

Adrenergic drugs

session 46

Adrenergic drugs

session 47

Adrenergic drugs

session 48

Adrenergic drugs

session 49

Adrenergic drugs

session 50

Adrenergic drugs

session 51

Adrenergic drugs

session 52

Adrenergic drugs

session 53

Adrenergic drugs

session 54

Adrenergic drugs

session 55

Adrenergic drugs

session 56

Adrenergic drugs

session 57

Adrenergic drugs

session 58

Adrenergic drugs

session 59

Adrenergic drugs

session 60

Adrenergic drugs

session 61

Adrenergic drugs

session 62

Adrenergic drugs

session 63

Adrenergic drugs

session 64

Adrenergic drugs

session 65

Adrenergic drugs

session 66

Adrenergic drugs



  1. The first six of the following experiments will be done by the students while
  2. the remaining will be demonstrated by the
  3. Effect of potassium and calcium ions, acetylcholine and adrenaline on frog's
  4. Effect of acetyl choline on rectus abdomens muscle of frog and guinea pig
  5. Effect of spasmogens and relaxants on rabbits
  6. Effect of local anaesthetics on rabbit
  7. Effect of mydriatics and miotics on rabbit's
  8. To study the action of strychnine on
  9. Effect of digitalis on frog's
  10. Effect of hypnotics in
  11. Effect of convulsants and anticonvulsant in mice or
  12. Test for
  13. Taming and hypnosis potentiating effect of chlorpromazine in mice/rats.
  14. Effect of diphenhydramine in experimentally produced asthma in guinea

Experiment 1

Introduction to Pharmacology

Experiment 2

scope of pharmacology

Experiment 3

Instruments used in pharmacology

Experiment 4

Animals used in pharmacology

Experiment 5

Effect of mydriatics on rabbit's eye

Experiment 6

Effect of miotics on rabbit's eye

Experiment 7

Effect of local anaesthetics on rabbit cornea

Experiment 8

Effect of digitalis on frog's heart

Experiment 9

Effect of convulsants  in mice or rats

Experiment 10

Effect of anticonvulsant in mice or rats

Case Study

Case Studies

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