Deepankar ratha


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Code(Credit) : BPHT2204(4-0-0)

Learning Outcomes

Upon completion of this course the student should be able to
1. Understand the pharmacological actions of different categories of drugs
2. Explain the mechanism of drug action at organ system/sub cellular/
macromolecular levels.
3. Apply the basic pharmacological knowledge in the prevention and treatment of  various diseases.
4. Observe the effect of drugs on animals by simulated experiments
5. Appreciate correlation of pharmacology with other bio medical sciences

Course Syllabus

1. General Pharmacology
a. Introduction to Pharmacology- Definition, historical landmarks and scope of
pharmacology, nature and source of drugs, essential drugs concept and routes of drug administration, Agonists, antagonists( competitive and non competitive), spare receptors, addiction, tolerance, dependence, tachyphylaxis, idiosyncrasy, allergy.
b. Pharmacokinetics- Membrane transport, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs .Enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition, kinetics of elimination

General Pharmacology
a. Pharmacodynamics- Principles and mechanisms of drug action. Receptor theories and classification of receptors, regulation of receptors. drug receptors interactions signal transduction mechanisms, G-protein–coupled receptors, ion channel receptor, transmembrane enzyme linked receptors, transmembrane JAK-STAT binding receptor and receptors that regulate transcription factors, dose response relationship, therapeutic index, combined effects of drugs and factors modifying drug action.
b. Adverse drug reactions.
c. Drug interactions (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic)
d. Drug discovery and clinical evaluation of new drugs -Drug discovery phase,
preclinical evaluation phase, clinical trial phase, phases of clinical trials and

2. Pharmacology of drugs acting on peripheral nervous system
a. Organization and function of ANS.
b.Neurohumoral transmission,co-transmission and classification of neurotransmitters.
c. Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics, Sympathomimetics, sympatholytics.
d. Neuromuscular blocking agents and skeletal muscle relaxants (peripheral).
e. Local anesthetic agents.
f. Drugs used in myasthenia gravis and glaucoma

3. Pharmacology of drugs acting on central nervous system
a. Neurohumoral transmission in the C.N.S.special emphasis on importance of various neurotransmitters like with GABA, Glutamate, Glycine, serotonin, dopamine.
b. General anesthetics and pre-anesthetics.
c. Sedatives, hypnotics and centrally acting muscle relaxants.
d. Anti-epileptics
e. Alcohols and disulfiram

3. Pharmacology of drugs acting on central nervous system
a. Psychopharmacological agents: Antipsychotics, antidepressants, anti-anxiety agents,anti-manics and hallucinogens.
b. Drugs used in Parkinsons disease and Alzheimer’s disease.
c. CNS stimulants and nootropics.
d. Opioid analgesics and antagonists
e. Drug addiction, drug abuse, tolerance and dependence

Session Plan

Session 1

Introduction to pharmacology


Session 2

Scope of pharmacology, source of drugs


Session 3

Routes of administration


Session 4

Session 5

Absorption, factors affecting drug absorption


Session 6

Drug distribution, apparent volume of distribution, plasma protein binding


Session 7

First pass metabolism, Bioavailability(phase-1 reactions)



Session 8

Bioequivalance, phase-2 reactions of bioavailability


Session 9

Enzyme induction and enzyme inhibition

Enzyme induction and inhibition -converted

Session 10

Excretion, clearance, plasma half life


Adme , kinetics


Adme , kinetics

Session 11

Mechanism of drug action, receptors, agonist, antagonist.

agonist and antagonist-

Session 12

Spare receptors, addiction, tolerance, dependence.


drugaddictiontoleranceanddepandance-190408164456 (1)-converted-converted

Session 13

Tachyphylaxis, idiosyncracy, drug allergy


Session 14

kinetics of elimination, membrane transport

Session 15

Principle and mechanism of drug action.

Session 16

Classification of receptors, receptor theories.


Session 17

Drug receptor interactions



Session 18

Signal transduction mechanism



Session 19

G-protein coupled receptor.


Session 20

Ion channel receptor


Session 21

Transmembrane enzyme linked receptor


Session 22

JAK_STAT pathway


Session 23

Dose response relationship

Session 24

Therapeutic index


Session 25

Combined effect of drugs

combined effect of drugs

Session 26

Factors modifying drug action

factors modifyingdrugaction-

Session 27

Adverse drug reactions


Session 28

Session 29

Drug discovery and clinical evaluation of new drug

Session 30

Drug discovery phases, preclinical evaluation

Session 31

Clinical trial phases and pharmacovigilance

Session 32

Organization & function of ANS

Session 33

Neurohumoral transmission & co-transmission

Session 34

Types of neurotransmitters

Session 35

Parasympathomimetics & parasympatholytics

Session 36

sympathomimetics & sympatholytics

Session 37

Session 38

Skeletal muscle relaxant and local anaesthetics

Session 39

Drug used in myasthenia gravis & glaucoma

Session 40

Neurohumoral transmission in CNS

Session 41

Gaba, glutamate, glycine, serotonin, dopamine.

Session 42

General anaesthetics and preanaesthetics

Session 44

Anti-epileptic agants


Session 43

Sedative hypnotics and centrally acting muscle relaxant

Session 46

Session 48

Drugs used in parkinsons disease

Session 49

Session 50

CNS stimulant and ionotropics

Session 51

Opioid analgesics and antagonists

Session 53

Drug tolerance and dependence.

Books / Reference.

1. Rang H. P., Dale M. M., Ritter J. M., Flower R. J., Rang and Dale’s Pharmacology,
Churchil Livingstone Elsevier
2. Katzung B. G., Masters S. B., Trevor A. J., Basic and clinical pharmacology, Tata Mc
3. Goodman and Gilman’s, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics
4. Marry Anne K. K., Lloyd Yee Y., Brian K. A., Robbin L.C., Joseph G. B., Wayne A.
K., Bradley R.W., Applied Therapeutics, The Clinical use of Drugs. The Point Lippincott
Williams &Wilkins
5. Mycek M.J, Gelnet S.B and Perper M.M. Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews-
6. K.D.Tripathi. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology, , JAYPEE Brothers Medical
Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi.
7. Sharma H. L., Sharma K. K., Principles of Pharmacology, Paras medical publisher
Modern Pharmacology with clinical Applications, by Charles R.Craig& Robert,
8. Ghosh MN. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology. Hilton & Company,
9. Kulkarni SK. Handbook of experimental pharmacology. VallabhPrakashan,
10. N.Udupa and P.D. Gupta, Concepts in Chronopharmacology

Case Studies

Our Main Teachers

Deepankar ratha

Assistant Professor