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Seed Production Using Manual and Molecular Methods

Seed Production Using Manual and Molecular Methods

Teacher

Dr. Prabhat Kumar Singh

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Domain Track Title : Seed Production Using Manual and Molecular Methods

Credits (T-P-P): 3-15-11 (29 credits)

Domain Track Objectives:

  • To acquaint students with conventional and modern breeding methods and its viable application in varietal development

  • To impart a comprehensive knowledge of seed production in vegetable and cereal crops with adequate practical training

  • To apprise students with the legislative provisions and processes as well as the mechanisms of quality control and seed certification

Domain Track Learning Outcomes:

At the end of this domain, students will enrich their Experiential Learning, practical knowledge and hands on training on

  • Emasculation and pollination technique for hybrid seed production

  • Application of molecular marker in seed production

  • Variety and hybrid seed production of cereals and vegetable crops

  • Physical and genetic purity test of quality seed production

  • Various methods of seed extraction and

  • Seed certification process

Courses Division:

  1. Breeding methods: conventional and molecular approach (1-2-0)

  2. Seed production of vegetable and cereals crops (1-2-0)

  3. Seed certification (1-2-0)

  4. Hybridization techniques (0-3-0)

  5. Vegetable Seed production (0-3-0)

  6. Cultivar purity and seed quality testing (0-3-0)

  7. Practices in Units/Field/Lab/Project (0-0-11)

Domain Syllabus:

1. Breeding methods: conventional and molecular approach (1-2-0)

Theory

1.1. Classification of Plant Breeding methods

1.2. Genetic basis and breeding methods in self- pollinated crops

1.3. Hybridization techniques and handling of segregating population

1.4. Genetic basis and breeding methods of cross-pollinated crops

1.5. Heterosis and inbreeding depression

1.6. Hybrid breeding- steps /operations in production of hybrid varieties

1.7. Male sterility and its application in hybrid seed production

1.8. Breeding methods in asexually propagated crops

1.9. Special breeding techniques: Mutation breeding

1.10. Special breeding techniques: Breeding for abiotic stresses

1.11. Special breeding techniques: Breeding for biotic stresses

1.12. DNA markers and its application in plant breeding

1.13. Marker assisted selection (MAS) and QTL

1.14. Cultivar development-variety testing procedures, release and notification system in India and IPR

Practical

1.1. Emasculation and hybridization techniques in Rice

1.2. Emasculation and hybridization techniques in maize

1.3. Emasculation and hybridization techniques in vegetable crops: Tomato

1.4. Emasculation and hybridization techniques in vegetable crops: Okra

1.5. Emasculation and hybridization techniques in vegetable crops: Brinjal

1.6. Handing of segregating populations

1.7. Designs used in plant breeding experiment: RBD analysis

1.8. Estimation of heterosis, inbreeding depression and heritability

1.9. Learning techniques in hybrid seed production using male-sterility in field crops

1.10. Use of male sterility in hybrid seed production: Rice

1.11. Genetic Mechanisms for Hybrid Seed Production in vegetable crops

1.12. Visit to AICRP plots to know about different trials for cultivar development

1.13. DNA isolation, DNA purity and quantification tests

1.14. DNA finger printing using PCR-based DNA markers

1.15. Gel electrophoresis

1.16. Gel scoring and data analysis for tagging and phylogenetic relationship

1.17. Use of standard MAS procedures- screening crops for resistant to different biotic stress traits

1.18. Use of standard MAS procedures- screening crops for resistant to different abiotic stress traits

Suggested Readings

  1. Allard, R.W.1960. Principles of Plant Breeding. John Wiley & Sons, New York
  2. Caetano-Anolles G & Gresshoff PM. 1998. DNA Markers: Protocols, Applications and Overviews. Wiley-VCH.
  3. Chopra VL. 2001. Breeding Field Crops. Oxford & IBH.
  4. Kalloo, G.1994, Vegetable Breeding, Panima Educational Book Agency, New Delhi
  5. Singh,P. 2006, Essential of Plant Breeding. Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana
  6. Singh B. D. 2006. Plant Breeding. Kalyani Publishers.

2. Seed production of vegetable and cereals crops (1-2-0)

Theory

2.1. Importance and scope of vegetable seed production in India

2.2. Planning for certified, foundation and breeder seed production

2.3. Seed quality: Certification standards for self and cross pollinated and vegetatively propagated crops

2.4. Principles of seed production in vegetable crops

2.5. Seed production in varieties and hybrids of cereals crops: rice and maize

2.6. Seed production in varieties and hybrids of vegetable crops: tomato, brinjal and okra

2.7. Harvesting/picking stage and seed extraction in vegetables

2.8. Seed drying, seed processing and seed storage

2.9. Seed health and measures for pest and disease control during storage

Practical

2.1. Selection of suitable areas/locations, seed/planting material for quality seed production

2.2. Determination of planting ratios for hybrid seed production of cereals

2.3. Study of floral biology of vegetable crop: Tomato

2.4. Study of floral biology of vegetable crop: Okra

2.5. Study of floral biology of vegetable crop: Eggplant

2.6. Determination of planting ratios for hybrid seed production of vegetables

2.7. Seed extraction methods and their effect on quality of vegetables

2.8. Seed and seedling vigour test

2.9. Practice on seed production of varieties and hybrids in cereal crops

2.10. Practice on seed production of varieties and hybrids in vegetable crops

2.11. Visit to seed production farms

2.12. Visit to seed testing laboratories

2.13. Visit to seed processing unit.

Suggested Readings

  1. Agarwal RL. 1997. Seed Technology. 2nd Ed. Oxford & IBH.
  2. Desai BB, Katecha, PM & Salunke DK.1997. Seed Hand Book: Biology, Production, Processing and Storage. Marcel Dekker.
  3. Desai BB. 2004. Seeds Handbook. Marcel Dekker.
  4. George RAT. 1980. Vegetable Seed Technology. A Technical Guide to Vegetable Seed Production, Processing, Storage and Quality Control. FAO, Rome

3. Seed certification (1-2-0)

Theory

3.1. Seed policy

3.2. Seed Certification: concept, objectives and importance of seed certification

3.3. Rule and regulation: Seed acts, Seed certification agency/organization and legal status

3.4. Indian Minimum Seed Certification Standards (I.M.S.C.S.)

3.5. Phases, Planning and management of seed certification programmes

3.6. Field Inspection: principles, phases and procedures, post-harvest inspection and evaluation

3.7. Seed sampling and seed testing for quality assessment

3.8. Grant of certificate and certification fee and other service charges

3.9. Seed marketing: structure and organization and pricing policy

3.10. Role of WTO and OECD in seed marketing 

Practical

3.1. General procedure of seed certification

3.2. Identification of weed and other crop seeds as per specific crops

3.3. Field inspection at different stages of a crop and observations recorded

3.4. Inspection and sampling at harvesting/threshing for seed law enforcement

3.5. Inspection and sampling at processing and after processing for seed law enforcement

3.6. Sampling methods and seed quality test

3.7. Specifications for tags and labels to be used for certification purpose

3.8. Varietal Identification through Grow Out Test

3.9 Varietal Identification through Electrophoresis

3.10. Molecular test for pre- and post-harvest quality control

3.11. Biochemical test for pre- and post-harvest quality control

3.12. Visits to regulatory seed testing laboratory, including plant quarantine lab

3.1.3 Visit to private and public sector seed companies

3.14. Visit to certification agencies, and NBPGR. 

Suggested Readings

  1. Agarwal RL. 1997. Seed Technology. Oxford & IBH.
  2. Anonymous 1992. Legislation on Seeds. NSC Ltd., Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, New Delhi.
  3. Nema NP. 1986. Principles of Seed Certification and Testing. Allied Publs.
  4. Tunwar NS & Singh SN. 1988. Indian Minimum Seed Certification Standards. CSCB, Ministry of Agriculture, New Delhi.

4. Hybridization techniques (0-3-0)

Practice

4.1. Growing different genotypes of a crop using appropriate experimental design

4.2. Practicing emasculation and hybridization techniques in various crops

4.3. Harvesting of F1 seeds 

4.4. DNA isolation of F1 progenies

4.5. Check the hybrid (F1) fidelity using molecular markers

4.6. Visit related research station to learn techniques in hybrid seed production using male-sterility in field crops

4.7. Visit to hybrid seed production plots: Rice, Maize

4.8. Visit to hybrid seed production plots: vegetable crops

4.9. Visit related research station to understand MAS procedures

5. Seed production of vegetable crops (0-3-0)

Practice

5.1. Selection of suitable areas/locations for high quality seed/planting material production

5.2. Learn the principles of seed production of brinjal

5.3. Learn the principles of seed production of okra

5.4. Learn the principles of seed production of tomato

5.5. Field inspection at different stages of a crop and record of observations

5.6. Practice on seed extraction: dry method

5.7. Practice on seed extraction: fermentation method

5.8. Practice on seed extraction: chemical method

5.9. Practice on seed processing of vegetable crops

6. Cultivar purity and seed quality testing (0-3-0)

Practice

6.1. Learn the seed sampling methods

6.2. Seed testing: physical purity test

6.3. Seed testing: moisture test

6.4. Seed testing: germination and vigour test

6.5. Seed testing: viability test

6.6. Varietal Identification through Grow Out Test

6.7. Varietal Identification through Electrophoresis,

6.8. Molecular test for seed quality assessment

6.9. Biochemical test for seed quality assessment

6.10. Control measures for stored grain disease and pest

Session Plan for the Entire Domain:

Theory:

1. Breeding methods: conventional and molecular approach (1-2-0)

Session 1.1: Classification of Plant Breeding methods

 Methods of Plant Breeding

Session 1.2: Genetic basis and breeding methods in self- pollinated crops

Breeding methods_ Self pollinated crops

Session 1.3: Hybridization techniques and handling of segregating population

Hybridization techniques & Handing of segregation populations

Session 1.4: Genetic basis and breeding methods of cross-pollinated crops

Breeding method_Back Cross

Session 1.5: Heterosis and inbreeding depression

Heterosis, inbreeding depression, various theories of Heterosis

Session 1.6: Hybrid breeding- steps /operations in production of hybrid varieties (Exploitation of heterosis)

Hybrid breeding- steps

Session 1.7: Male sterility and its application in hybrid seed production

Male Sterilitry

Application of Male Sterility in hybrid seed production

Session 1.8: Breeding methods in asexually propagated crops

Clonal Selection

Session 1.9: Special breeding techniques: Mutation breeding

Mutation Breeding

Mutation breeding procedure

Session 1.10: Special breeding techniques: Breeding for abiotic stresses

Breeding for Abiotic resistance

Breeding for abiotic_ Drought

Session 1.11: Special breeding techniques: Breeding for biotic stresses

Breeding for resistance to disease and insect pests

Breeding for Disease resistance

Breeding for Insect resistance

Session 1.12: DNA markers and its application in plant breeding

Biotechnological tools-DNA markers

Session 1.14: Cultivar development-variety testing procedures, release and notification system in India and IPR

Variety Development, Evaluation, Testing & Release in India

IPR

2. Seed production of vegetable and cereals crops (1-2-0)

Session 2.1: Importance and scope of vegetable seed production in India

Scope of vegetable seed production in India

Current status of vegetable seed industry in India

Session 2.2: Planning for certified, foundation and breeder seed production

Planning for certified, foundation and breeder seed production

Session 2.3: Seed quality: Certification standards for self and cross pollinated and vegetatively propagated crops

Seed quality

Session 2.4: Principles of seed production in vegetable crops

Basic Principles of Quality Seed Production in Veg crops

Session 2.5: Seed production in varieties and hybrids of cereals crops: rice and maize

Seed production_maize

Hybrid seed production technology in maize

Seed production_ Rice

Session 2.6: Seed production in varieties and hybrids of vegetable crops: tomato, brinjal and okra

Brinjal quality seed production

Okra quality seed production

Tomato Quality seed production

Session 2.8: Seed drying, seed processing and seed storage

Seed drying and processing

Seed storage

Session 2.9: Seed health and measures for pest and disease control during storage

Seed health

Seed treatment

3. Seed certification (1-2-0)

Session 3.1: Seed policy 

Seed policy

Session 3.2: Seed policy and Seed Certification: concept, objectives and importance of seed certification

Seed Certification

Session 3.3: Rule and regulation: Seed acts, Seed certification agency/organization and legal status

Central and state seed committee

Rules and regulations in Seed act for quality seed

Seeds act and rules

Session 3.4: Indian Minimum Seed Certification Standards (I.M.S.C.S.)

General seed certification standards

Appendices

Session 3.5: Phases, Planning and management of seed certification programmes

Sseed certification programmes

Session 3.6: Field Inspection: principles, phases and procedures, post-harvest inspection and evaluation

Field Inspiction

Session 3.7: Seed sampling and seed testing for quality assessment

Seed purity analysis

Seed quality an overview

Seed sampling and testing

Session 3.8: Grant of certificate and certification fee and other service charges

Grant of certificate and service charges

Session 3.9: Seed marketing: structure and organization and pricing policy

Seed marketing

Seed marketing and pricing policy

Session 3.10: Role of WTO and OECD in seed marketing

OECD

WTO & INDIA

Practice:

1. Breeding methods: conventional and molecular approach (0-3-0)

Session 1.1: Emasculation and hybridization techniques in Rice

Emasculation and pollinaton technique in rice

Session 1.2: Emasculation and hybridization techniques in maize

Emasculation and pollination technique in maize

Floral biology of maize

Session 1.3: Emasculation and hybridization techniques in vegetable crops: Tomato

Emasculation and pollination technique in tomato 

Session 1.4: Emasculation and hybridization techniques in vegetable crops: Okra

Emasculation and pollination technique in Okra

Session 1.5: Emasculation and hybridization techniques in vegetable crops: Brinjal

Pollination technique in eggplant 

Session 1.6: Handing of segregating populations

Handing of segregating populations

Session 1.7: Designs used in plant breeding experiment: RBD analysis

Designs used in plant breeding experiment_ RBD

Session 1.8: Estimation of heterosis, inbreeding depression and heritability

Estimation of heterosis, inbreeding depression and heritability

Session 1.9: Learning techniques in hybrid seed production using male-sterility in field crops 

Field techniques for Hybrid seed production

Session 1.10: Use of male sterility in hybrid seed production: Rice

Hybrid seed production in rice

Session 1.11: Genetic Mechanisms for Hybrid Seed Production in vegetable crops

Genetic Mechanisms for Hybrid Seed Production in veg crops

Session 1.12: Visit to AICRP plots to know about different trials for cultivar development

Session 1.13: DNA isolation, DNA purity and quantification tests

Plant genomic DNA isolation 

Quantify DNA with a Spectrophotometer 

Session 1.14: DNA finger printing using PCR-based DNA markers 

DNA finger printing using RAPD marker 

cultivar identification in maize using SSR markers 

Session 1.16: Gel scoring and data analysis for tagging and phylogenetic relationship

Determining DNA Fragment Length in a Gel 

Session 1.17: Use of standard MAS procedures- screening crops for resistant to different biotic stress traits

Genomics based breeding research for improving resistance to biotic and abiotic stress in cereals 

Session 1.18: Use of standard MAS procedures- screening crops for resistant to different abiotic stress traits

Genomics based breeding research for improving resistance to biotic and abiotic stress in cereals 

2. Seed production of vegetable and cereals crops (0-3-0)

Session 2.1: Selection of suitable areas/locations, seed/planting material for quality seed production

Selection of suitable agroclimatic condition and seeds

Session 2.2: Determination of planting ratios for hybrid seed production of cereals

Determination of planting ratios_ Maize and rice

Session 2.3: Study of floral biology of vegetable crop: Tomato

Tomato_ Floral biology and crossing Technique

Session 2.4: Study of floral biology of vegetable crop: Okra

Okra_ Floral biology

Session 2.5: Study of floral biology of vegetable crop: Eggplant

Brinjal_ Floral biology

Session 2.6: Determination of planting ratios for hybrid seed production of vegetables

Session 2.7: Seed extraction methods and their effect on quality of vegetables

Tomato Seeds! extraction_ Fermentation Method 

Brinjal Seed Extraction

Okra Seeds harvesting 

Session 2.8: Seed and seedling vigour test

Seed vigour test through magneto environment 

Session 2.9: Practice on seed production of varieties and hybrids in cereal crops

DuPont Pioneer hybrid production in maize 

Session 2.10: Practice on seed production of varieties and hybrids in vegetable crops

Session 2.11: Visit to seed production farms

Namdhari Seeds Pvt Ltd

Session 2.12: Visit to seed testing laboratories.

Lab Operations & Role of a Modern Seed Testing Lab 

International Seed Testing lab 

Session 2.13: Visit to seed processing unit.

Seed processing unit

How seed processing plant works?

3. Seed certification (0-3-0)

Session 3.1: General procedure of seed certification

General procedure of seed certification

Session 3.2: Identification of weed and other crop seeds as per specific crops

Session 3.3: Field inspection at different stages of a crop and observations recorded

Crop Inspection and Harvesting | Irish Seed Trade Association (ISTA)

Session 3.4: Inspection and sampling at harvesting/threshing for seed law enforcement

Session 3.5: Inspection and sampling at processing and after processing for seed law enforcement

Session 3.6: Sampling methods and seed quality test

Seed sampling and seed germination tests

Seed viability by Tetrazolium test 

Session 3.7: Specifications for tags and labels to be used for certification purpose

Seed Tags Explained 

Session 3.8: Varietal Identification through Grow Out Test 

seed purity test using GOT 

Session 3.9: Varietal Identification through Electrophoresis

Gel Electrophoresis 

Session 3.10: Molecular test for pre- and post-harvest quality control

DNA markers for commercial seed lot purity test 

Session 3.11: Biochemical test for pre- and post-harvest quality control

Session 3.12: Visits to regulatory seed testing laboratory, including plant quarantine lab 

Wyoming Seed Analysis Lab 

Session 3.13: Visit to private and public sector seed companies

Session 3.14: Visit to  certification agencies, and NBPGR.

4. Hybridization techniques (0-3-0)

Session 4.1: Growing different genotypes of a crop using appropriate experimental design

Session 4.2: Practicing emasculation and pollination techniques in various crops

Session 4.3: Harvesting of F1 seeds 

Session 4.4: DNA isolation of F1 progenies

DNA Extraction 

Session 4.5: Check the hybrid (F1) fidelity using molecular markers

Session 4.6: Visit related research station to learn techniques in hybrid seed production using male-sterility in field crops

Session 4.7: Visit to hybrid seed production plots: Rice, Maize 

Session 4.8: Visit to hybrid seed production plots: vegetable crops

Session 4.9: Visit related research station to understand MAS procedures

5. Seed production of vegetable crops (0-3-0)

Session 5.1: Selection of suitable areas/locations for high quality seed/planting material production

Session 5.2: Learn the principles of seed production of brinjal

Session 5.3: Learn the principles of seed production of okra

Session 5.4: Learn the principles of seed production of tomato

Session 5.5: Field inspection at different stages of a crop and record of observations

Session 5.6: Practice on seed extraction: dry method

Session 5.7: Practice on seed extraction: fermentation method

Session 5.8: Practice on seed extraction: chemical method

Session 5.9: Practice on seed processing of vegetable crops

6. Cultivar purity and seed quality testing (0-3-0)

Session 6.2: Seed testing: physical purity

Seed Labs Purity Test 

Seed Workshop_Purity Test 

Session 6.5: Seed testing: viability test

Tetrazolium test 

Checking Seed Viability (Full Length) 

Session 6.5: Seed testing: viability test

Tetrazolium test 

Checking Seed Viability (Full Length) 

Session 6.6: Varietal Identification through Grow Out Test

Session 6.7: Varietal Identification through Electrophoresis

Session 6.8: Molecular test for quality assessment

Session 6.9: Biochemical test for quality assessment

Session 6.10: Control measures for stored grain disease and pest

List of Projects/ papers/jobs/products to be done in domain: Meanwhile, to acquire the real time experience in addition to this practice work in AELP, students will be tie-up with

  • Research institute

  • Seed production farms

  • Seed testing laboratories and

  • Seed processing unit

Our Main Teachers

On the surface, Dr. Prabhat Kumar Singh is an accomplished Assistant Professor in Genetics and Plant Breeding, MSSSoA, CUTM, Paralakhemundi, Odisha with more than 3 years of experience in teaching and research. During the PG and PhD programme, Dr. Singh worked on Mutation breeding in tuberose and grasspea respectively. As a result of dissertation work […]