X-Ray Technology


Sashisaroj T Tiwari


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Course Name :

SFS : X-Ray Technology


Code (Credit) : CUTM3065 (0+3+1)


Course Objectives

Course Objectives

  1. Covers the practical application of radiography in the paramedical profession.
  2. Includes principles of x-ray production, the operation and uses of x-ray machines, the care and development of films, and radiographic positioning of patients.
  3. Prerequisites: Admission to the X-Ray Technology program.
  4. Use an understanding of diagnostic quality images to determine options to correct deficiencies and to maximize diagnostic benefit and minimize radiation exposure based on repeated images.
  5. Apply knowledge of the health risks and effective safety procedures and professional judgment to minimize risks to personnel and patients during radiographic procedures.


Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion of the course,

  • The student will be able to safely and effectively : Prepare radiographic and darkroom equipment, Choose an appropriate radiographic technique to minimize the need for repeat exposures, Produce the latent image, Process the exposed film, analyze the final radiograph for quality in order to provide maximum diagnostic benefit.
  • The individual will be able to Handle X-ray equipment’s, develop exposed x-ray films, Prepare the room, apparatus, and instruments for conventional radiological procedures like X-ray and Mammography and Set up the machine for the desired procedure
  • Trainee will be able to position the patient correctly for an x-ray in the following positions: Erect, Sitting, supine, prone, lateral, oblique, decubitus
  • Able to explain relative positions of x-ray tube and patient and the relevant exposure factors related to these
  • Explain the use of accessories such as Radiographic cones, grid and positioning aids
  • Setting up the equipment for images & ensuring safety from radiation to patients, self, coworkers


Course Syllabus

Module -1 

Anatomy & Physiology:

Skeletal System, .Respiratory system, Digestive System, Urinary system, Central nervous system, Endocrine system, Reproductive system


Module -2 

Essential Physics:

Sound & Heat, A.C. and D.C. power supply, Rectification and Transformers,  Electromagnetic radiation spectrum and its properties, Production of X and gamma rays, Radioactivity, Interaction of radiation with matter, Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD), Radiation protection.


Module – 3 

Principles of imaging:

X-ray films, Intensifying screens, X-ray cassettes, Darkroom and types of equipment in Darkroom, Developer & fixer, Automatic Processing system, LASER Printer.


Module -4

Construction of Equipment:

Stationery anode x-ray tube, rotating anode x-ray tube, Beam Restrictors, Grids, Fluoroscopy, Image Intensifier tube, Portable and mobile x-ray units, Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).



Radiographic Technique– 1:

Upper limb, Lower Limb, Vertebral column, Skull Radiography, Chest X-Ray, Abdominal X-Ray. Views: AP, PA, LATERAL, OBLIQUE, RAO, LAO


Module – 6 

Radiographic Special Procedures:

Contrast media used in the x-ray department (inclusive of those applicable to CT & MRI), Barium meal, Barium swallow, Barium enema, BMFT, IPV, HSG, RGU, MCUG, Myelography, Sialography,  Angiography


Module- 7

Mammography & Ultrasound:

Mammography Machine, Views, Ultrasound, Transducer, Probes, Properties of Ultrasound. Doppler Ultra Sound


List of Projects/Products/Publication

  • Construction and working of  X-ray tube
  • Types of X-ray tube and its construction
  • Radiographic positioning, preparation, indication and contraindication of Chest AP /PA
  • Radiographic positioning, preparation, indication and contraindication of Upper limb AP/LATERAL
  • Radiographic positioning, preparation, indication and contraindication Lower limb AP/LATERAL
  • Human Anatomy- Respiratory system/ Central Nervous system/ Reproductive system/Digestive system/ Urinary system/Skeletal system
  • Radiographic positioning, preparation, indication and contraindication of mammography CC and MLO view
  • Design, Construction and working of mammography equipment
  • X-ray film/ Intensifying screen and its construction
  • Darkroom construction and Equipment’s / Accessories


Text Books/Reference Books

  • Basic Radiological Physics -K.Thayalan
  • Radiological Procedure -Dr.Bhushan N Lakhar
  • Manipal Manual of Anatomy –Madhyastha
  • Clark's Positioning in Radiography-Hodder Arnold




Anatomy & Physiology:

Skeletal System

Video : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=38MsEkhdECM

Presentation : https://www.slideshare.net/TessMiller519/the-skeletal-system-77966231



Module-1 Anatomy & Physiology

Topic : Respiratory System

Video : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PLFq-1h4870

Presentation - https://www.slideshare.net/AbhayRajpoot3/the-respiratory-system-240370837



Module -1 Anatomy & Physiology

Topic: Digestive System

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Og5xAdC8EUI

Presentation- https://www.slideshare.net/heatherelira/the-digestive-system-ppt



Module -1 Anatomy & Physiology

Topic: Central Nervous System

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0yXMGQaVVXg

Presentation - https://www.slideshare.net/ParasuramanParasuraman/central-nervous-system-174990999



Module-1 Anatomy & Physiology

Topic : Endocrine System

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vLdNX5Te1Xo

Presentation - https://www.slideshare.net/9426401633/endocrine-system-1-73527168



Module-1 Anatomy & Physiology

Topic: Reproductive System

Video: female RS - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-5SOvWaW_OY

Male RS - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T8q3JpTWhrY

Presentation- https://www.slideshare.net/9426401633/reproductive-system-73578010



Module-2 Essential Physics:

Topic: X-ray production

Video : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IsaTx5-KLT8

Presentation - https://www.slideshare.net/HanumanDoke/x-ray-production-and-properties



Module-2 Essential Physics:

Topic: Electromagnetic radiation spectrum and its properties, Production of X and gamma rays, Radioactivity, Interaction of radiation with matter

Video : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OzFU6XvzzgA

Presentation- https://www.slideshare.net/VivekSrivastava22/electromagnetic-radiation-43239184



Module -2 Essential Physics:

Topic: Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD), Radiation protection

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c6ALObbVDdI

Presentation- https://www.slideshare.net/VijayRaturi/tld-1-copy



Module-3 Principles of Imaging

Topic : X-ray films

Video :  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RHigCSss4IQ

Presentation-  https://www.slideshare.net/airwave12/radiographic-film-33683603




Module-3 Principles of Imaging

Topic : Intensifying screens

Video :  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6nhmn4Misg8





Module-3 Principles of Imaging

Topic : X-ray cassettes

Video : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ilkDLWGkLpc

Presentation- https://www.slideshare.net/SudilPaudyal/radiographic-cassettes




Module-4 Construction Of Equipment

Topic : Stationery anode x-ray tube & Rotating anode x-ray tube

Video: Stationery anode x-ray tube-  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W0Lp_SU-h6c

Rotating anode X-ray tube - https://youtu.be/YkeWE1pd5ew




Module-5 Radiographic Technique -1

Topic : Upper Limb

Video: Hand -  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tMFRbR7vGMU

Presentation - https://www.slideshare.net/InfoUtilRT/upper-extremity-anatomy-positioning



Module-5 Radiographic Technique -1

Topic : Upper Limb

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rYXKmzs88fQ

Presentation - https://www.slideshare.net/InfoUtilRT/upper-extremity-anatomy-positioning




Module-5 Radiographic Technique -1

Topic : Upper Limb

Video:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1HQildLbg4c

Presentation - https://www.slideshare.net/InfoUtilRT/upper-extremity-anatomy-positioning



Module-5 Radiographic Technique -1

Topic : Upper Limb

Video:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s737XjACfpM

Presentation - https://www.slideshare.net/InfoUtilRT/upper-extremity-anatomy-positioning




Module-5 Radiographic Technique -1

Topic : Upper Limb

Video:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dYCAKGtC2_o

Presentation - https://www.slideshare.net/InfoUtilRT/upper-extremity-anatomy-positioning



Module-5 Radiographic Technique -1

Topic: Lower Limb

Video:  Foot – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=au55A6jx5AU

Ankle- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wUIzFBDaHAQ

Presentation- https://www.slideshare.net/chandanprasad33/radiographic-views-of-proximal-femur-and-pelvis




Module-5 Radiographic Technique -1

Topic: Lower Limb

Video:  Leg- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2r2bkAyXzGQ

Knee joint- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q0nwheZe-yQ

Presentation- https://www.slideshare.net/chandanprasad33/radiographic-views-of-proximal-femur-and-pelvis


SESSION-25-26Module-5 Radiographic Technique -1

Topic: Lower Limb

Video:  Femur- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xDMJmjhFNSE

Hip joint- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C2Ud4EwZVQM

Presentation- https://www.slideshare.net/chandanprasad33/radiographic-views-of-proximal-femur-and-pelvis




Module-5 Radiographic Technique -1

Topic: Cervical Spine

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H2zZv-sCtts

Presentation -  https://www.slideshare.net/Rajaoct/x-ray-cspine



Module-5 Radiographic Technique -1

Topic : Chest X-Ray

Video:  AP - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=roUByXxWDI4

PA - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6WvHKT6eK9g

Lateral - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M92h0sp94KQ

Presentation : https://www.slideshare.net/drvikrampatil/approach-to-chest-xray-and-interpretation


SESSION- 30-31

Module-5 Radiographic Technique -1

Topic: Abdominal X-Ray

Video: Lateral - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SVcim9vMG38

AP - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_t3L5F0HQKU

PA - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pnv75U0jX2E

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/SudilPaudyal/abdomen-radiography



Module-5 Radiographic Technique -1

Topic: Pelvic Bone

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C2Ud4EwZVQM

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/JaiKumar331/xray-pelvis-projections



Module-6 Radiographic Special Procedures:

Topic : Barium Enema

Video: https://youtu.be/AwGt8TKOrnI

Presentation:  https://www.slideshare.net/oswinissac1/barium-enema-ppt



SESSION- 34-36

Module-6 Radiographic Special Procedures:

Topic: Barium Meal and Barium Meal  Follow Through 

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iQQI2V61FHg

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/atreya7/learn-barium-meal-follow-through



Module -6 Radiographic Special Procedures:

Topic: IVP / IVU

Video : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4etilyqPUiY

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/JaiKumar331/intravenous-urogram-ivu




Module-6 Radiographic Special Procedures:

Topic: MCU

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SEUBKOEBSow

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/mohitgoel9212/mcu-micturating-cystourethrogram



SESSION- 39-40

Module - 7 Mammography and Ultrasound:

Topic: Mammography and Ultrasound

Video: Mammography-   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MXg0ex0zy98

USG -  https://youtu.be/7iA6dkaXYoo

Presentation -

Mammography -  https://www.slideshare.net/sabingwachha/mammography-71710423

USG - https://www.slideshare.net/NamraAfzal/ultrasound-machine

Our Main Teachers

Sashisaroj T Tiwari

Assistant Professor, Department of Radiology,  SoPAHS


Rajesh Sukkala

Assistant Professor Of Radiology

I am an Assistant Professor of Radiology with a Master's Degree in Medical Imaging Technology. I have worked with most reputed diagnostic centers and Medical Colleges in Hyderabad and Pune As Radiologic Technologist and An Assistant Professor. And I am also the first professional to be certified in Andhra Pradesh as a Fibroscan Technologist. I have handled all the Radiology Modalities and had a good experience in teaching.