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Course Name : Soil and Water chemistry

Code(Credit) : FSEM 1102 (2-1-0)

Course Objectives

  • To know the chemistry and composition of water.
  • To know the concept of physical and chemical properties of soil and water.

Learning Outcomes

CO-1 : Understand the water and soil quality parameter analysis for aquaculture.

CO-2 : Aware of optimum ranges of water and soil parameters required for aquaculture.

CO-3 : Understand the soil and water quality criteria for aquaculture.

Course Syllabus


1. Analytical chemistry: principles, applications and types. Classical methods of analytical chemistry, volumetry and gravimetry. Solutions: Standard solutions, titration, indicators, dilute solutions, units of concentration: standard curve

2.Chemistry of water: the water molecule, properties of pure water, fresh water and sea water. Composition of waters: surface water, ground water and sea water.

3.Dissolved gasses: Factors affecting natural waters. Acid, base, salts: Hydrogen ions, modern concept of pH and buffer.

4.Water analysis: collection and preservation of water samples .Measurement of temperature, transparency, turbidity, determination of pH, electrical conductivity, salinity, chlorinity, total solids (TDS, TSS, TVS, TVDS), dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, total alkalinity, total hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Inorganic Nitrogen (Ammonium and Nitrate) and phosphorus.

5.Water quality criteria/ requirements for Aquaculture.

6.Soil Chemistry: origin and nature of soils. Physical properties of soil; soil colour. texture, structure, pore size, bulk density, water holding capacity. Soil types and their distribution, soil colloids, cation exchange, organic carbon, Carbon - Nitrogen ratio, soil fertility.

7.Soil reaction: acidity, alkalinity, conductivity, redox - potential. Submersed soils: wet lands, peat soils, fluxes between mud and water, methane and hydrogen sulphide formation. Saline soils, Alkali soils, acid sulphate soils, iron pyrites, soil reclamation.

8.Soil analysis: collection and preparation of soil samples. Determination of soil texture, water holding capacity, pH, conductivity, organiccarbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, lime requirement. Soil and water amendments: lime manures, fertilizers, micronutrients, zeolites, alum, gypsum.

9.Environmental ameliorative: chlorination, deodorizers, bacterial formulation.

10.Soil quality criteria/ requirements for aquaculture.


1.Principles of Titrimetry, Gravimetry, Potentiometry, Conductometry, Refractometry, Colourimetry, Turbidimetry, Spectrophotometry (UV, Visible, Flame, AAS), computerized instrument system.

2.Demonstration: demonstration of laboratory glass wares and equipment used in water and soil analysis.

3.Water analysis: measurement of temperature, turbidity, determination of pH and EC. Determination of salinity, Chlorinity, Total solids, Redox potential, DO, Free CO2. Determination of total alkalinity, hardness. Determination of inorganic nitrogen, and phosphorus

4.Soil analysis: Determination of soil texture, soil pH, conductivity, soil available nitrogen, available phosphorus, and organic carbon.


  1. Bottom soil, sediment and pond aquaculture --- Claude E.Body
  2. Fundamentals of Soil --- V.N.Sahai
  3. Text book of Soil science—R.K.Mehra
  4. Soil ----- FAO training series
  1. Water quality in ponds for aquaculture --Claude E.Body
  2. Fresh water fish culture--- V.R.P.Sinha and V.Ramachandran
  3. A hand book of soil, fertilizer and manure – P.K.Gupta

Session Plan

Session 1

An Introduction to soil and water chemistry Introduction

Session 3 (Practical)

Principles of titrimetry, gravimetry, potentiometry


Session 5

Acid, base, salt (physical and chemical properties) Acid, base, salt

Session 6

Session 9 (Practical) Measurement of electrical conductivity

Session 10 (Practical) Determination of dissolved oxygen in water Determination of total alkalinity Determination of hardness

Session 20 (Practical) Determination of inorganic nitrogen

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