# Thermodynamics

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# Code(Credit) : DIME0105(2-1-0)

## Course Objectives

Student will develop ability towards.

• Comprehending significance of thermodynamics properties in order to analyze a thermodynamic system.
• Comprehending & applying first & second law of thermodynamics in closed & open system with its applications.
• Determining thermodynamic properties of steam using steam tables & mollier chart.
• Comprehending the vapor power cycles and computing work done & efficiencies.
• Understand the basic mechanisms of heat transfer & different laws associated with it.

## Learning Outcomes

• Students will able to identify different thermodynamic processes and systems.
• Students will able to know the application of thermodynamics in the various field & machines.
• Students will able to solve for a given a set of steam tables and sufficient information to indicate the state of the fluid, determine any unknown properties for the fluid
• Realizing application of various  power cycles in  thermal power plant with its efficiencies.
• Students will able to understand the mechanism & effect of heat transfer

## Course Syllabus

Module I

Concepts And Terminology

Thermodynamic systems, Macroscopic and microscopic views of study, Thermodynamic properties of a system (Pressure, volume, temperature and units of measurement) Intensive and extensive properties, State and Process, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Quasi static process.

Energy And Work Transfer

Work transfer, Displacement work, forms of work transfer, Types of energy and its sources.

First Law Of Thermodynamics

Energy as system property, forms of stored energy, First law for a closed system undergoing a cyclic process, Zeroth law of thermodynamics, First law for a closed system undergoing change of state, Concept of enthalpy, First law applied to steady flow processes, Steady Flow Energy Equation and its application, Perpetual motion machine of first kind.

Second Law Of Thermodynamics

Limitations of first, Thermal reservoir, Concept of heat engine, heat pump and refrigerator, Statement of Second law of thermodynamics (Clausius and Kelvin Planck), Perpetual motion machine of second kind, Carnot cycle, Application of second law, Clausius inequality, Defining entropy, entropy and disorder.

Module II

Working Substances

Pure substance, Phase change phenomenon of pure substance and associated terminology, p-v, p-h and T-s diagrams, Specific heats, Dryness fraction and its measurement, Steam table and its use to determine unknown properties, Use of Molliers chart to determine unknown properties.

Vapor Power Cycle

Steam power plant lay out, Steam power plant cycle, Carnot vapor cycle, Rankine vapor cycle, Modifications to Rankine vapor cycles. Construction and working principle of a steam engine

Module III

Heat Transfer

Modes of heat transfer, Fourier law of heat conduction, thermal conductivity, Steady state heat conduction in solids (Plane wall, hollow cylinder, hollow sphere), Convective heat transfer, Newton’s law of cooling, Radiation heat transfer, Stefan Boltzman Law, Theories of radiation: Maxwell’s theory, Max Planck’s theory; Black body radiation, Surface absorption, reflection and transmission, Kirchoff’s law relating to spectral emissive power to absorptivity, Heat exchangers: concept, application and classification.

Learning Resources:

Text Books:

2. Domkundwar                       A text book of thermal Engineering

Reference Books:

1. P K Nag ,                     Engineering Thermodynamics,
2.  Mahesh M Rathore , Thermal Engineering

## Session Plan

Session 1

LECTURE:

Introduction ,Thermodynamic systems,Macroscopic and microscopic views of study;

Different type of system

Macroscopic and microscopic views of study

## Session 2

LECTURE:
Thermodynamic properties of a system (Pressure, volume, temperature and units of measurement) Intensive and extensive properties

Thermodynamic properties

## Session 3

LECTURE:

State and Process, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Quasi static process. Types of energy and its sources.

State of a System Process Cycle

## Session 4

LECTURE:
Work transfer, Displacement work, forms of work transfer,

work transfer

Displacement Work or PdV Work

Work Transfer and its Types

## Session 5

LECTURE:

Forms of work transfer

## Session 6

LECTURE:

Zeroth law of thermodynamics, First Law Of Thermodynamics

## Session 7

LECTURE:

Total Energy, mechanism of energy Transfer,Energy as system property

## Session 8

LECTURE:

First law for a closed system undergoing a cyclic process, First law for a closed system undergoing change of state,

## Session 9

LECTURE:

Concept of enthalpy, First law applied to steady flow processes

## Session 10

LECTURE:

Steady Flow Energy Equation and its application, Perpetual motion machine of first kind.

## Session 11

Simple Problems on first Law

## Session 12

LECTURE:

Limitations of first, Thermal reservoir, Concept of heat engine, heat pump and refrigerator

## Session 13

LECTURE:

Statement of Second law of thermodynamics (Clausius and Kelvin Planck),Perpetual motion machine of second kind

LECTURE:

Carnot cycle

## Session 15

LECTURE:

Application of second law, Clausius inequality, Defining entropy, entropy and disorder

## Session 16

LECTURE:

Pure substance, Phase change phenomenon of pure substance and associated terminology

## Session 17

LECTURE:

P-V, P-H and T-S diagrams, Specific heats, Dryness fraction and its measurement

## Session 18

LECTURE:

Steam table and its use to determine unknown properties, Use of Molliers chart to determine unknown properties.

How to Use Steam Tables

## Session 19

LECTURE:

Use of Molliers chart to determine unknown properties.

## Session 20

LECTURE:

Steam power plant lay out, Steam power plant cycle

## Session 21

LECTURER:

Carnot vapor cycle

## Session 22

LECTURE:

Rankine vapor cycle

## Session 23

LECTURE:

Modifications to Rankine vapor cycles. Construction and working principle of a steam engine

## Session 24

LECTURE:

Modes of heat transfer, Fourier law of heat conduction, thermal conductivity, Steady state heat conduction in solids (Plane wall, hollow cylinder, hollow sphere)

## Session 25

LECTURE:

Convective heat transfer, Newton’s law of cooling, Radiation heat transfer, Stefan Boltzman Law

LECTURE:

## Session 27

LECTURE:

Surface absorption, reflection and transmission, Kirchoff’s law relating to spectral emissive power to absorptivity

## Session 28

LECTURE:

Heat exchangers: concept, application and classification.

## Session 29

LECTURE:

Simple Problems on heat transfer