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1. Review of Geometrical Optics: Vergence and power 1.1 Conjugacy, object space and image space
1.2 Sign convention
1.3 Spherical refracting surface
1.4 Spherical mirror; catoptric power
1.5 Cardinal points
1.7 Light and visual function
Module-II (9 hrs)
Clinical Relevance of Fluorescence, Interference, Diffraction, Polarization, Bi-refringence, Dichroism
Aberration and application Spherical and Chromatic
Optics of Ocular Structure
Cornea and aqueous
Schematic and reduced eye
Module-IV (10 hrs.)
Measurements of Optical Constants of the Eye:
Corneal curvature and thickness,
The curvature of the lens and ophthalmophakometry,
Axial and axis of the eye.
Module V (6 hours)
Basic Aspects of Vision: Visual Acuity, Light and Dark Adaptation, Color Vision, Spatial and Temporal Resolution, color vision & theories
Science of Measuring visual performance and application to Clinical Optometry.
Refractive anomalies and their causes
Etiology of refractive anomalies
Contributing variability and their ranges
Populating distributions of anomalies.
Optical component measurements
Growth of the eye in relation to refractive errors
Module-VII (8 hrs)
Refractive conditions: Emmetropia, Ametropia types,
Correction of Refractive errors, Myopia, Hyperopia& astigmatism types.
Axial versus refractive ametropia
1. Clinical Visual optics Arthur G Bennett Ronald B Rabbetts -Butterworth- Heinemann Second edition 1989
2. Visual Optics and Refraction- A clinical approach David D Michaels: The C.V. Mosby Co., 1985.
1. Clinical Optics, Andrew R Elkington& Helena J Frank - Blackwell Scientific Publications Oxford – London
Optics and Refraction A User-friendly guide David Miller 1991 Gower Medical Publishing
light and dark adaptaion .