Visual Optics I


Vinay Dinakaran Mallepudi


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Course Name : Visual Optics I

Code(Credit) : ABC01(3-1-0)

Course Objectives

  • This course will be taught in two consecutive semesters. Geometric Optics is the study of light and its behavior as it propagates in a variety of media. Specifically, the phenomena of reflection and refraction of light at boundaries between media and subsequent image formation will be dealt with in detail. Reflections at the plane and spherical surfaces and refractions at plane, spherical, cylindrical and toric surfaces will be studied in this course. Attention will be given to the system of surfaces and/or lenses and their imaging properties. The effect of aperture stops on the quality of images, such as blur and aberrations, depth of field and depth of focus, will also be studied.

Learning Outcomes

  • • The objective of this course is to equip the students with a thorough knowledge of mirrors and lenses. At the end of this course, students will be able to predict the basic properties of the images formed on the retina by the optics of the eye.

Course Syllabus

Module-I (8hrs)
1. Review of Geometrical Optics: Vergence and power 1.1 Conjugacy, object space and image space
1.2 Sign convention
1.3 Spherical refracting surface
1.4 Spherical mirror; catoptric power
1.5 Cardinal points
1.7 Light and visual function

Module-II (9 hrs)

Clinical Relevance of Fluorescence, Interference, Diffraction, Polarization, Bi-refringence, Dichroism
Aberration and application Spherical and Chromatic

Module-III (9hrs)

Optics of Ocular Structure
Cornea and aqueous
Crystalline lens
Schematic and reduced eye

Module-IV (10 hrs.)
Measurements of Optical Constants of the Eye:
Corneal curvature and thickness,
The curvature of the lens and ophthalmophakometry,
Axial and axis of the eye.

Module V (6 hours)
Basic Aspects of Vision: Visual Acuity, Light and Dark Adaptation, Color Vision, Spatial and Temporal Resolution, color vision & theories
Science of Measuring visual performance and application to Clinical Optometry.

Module-VI (10hrs)

Refractive anomalies and their causes
Etiology of refractive anomalies
Contributing variability and their ranges
Populating distributions of anomalies.
Optical component measurements
Growth of the eye in relation to refractive errors

Module-VII (8 hrs)
Refractive conditions: Emmetropia, Ametropia types,
Correction of Refractive errors, Myopia, Hyperopia& astigmatism types.
Axial versus refractive ametropia

Text Books:

1. Clinical Visual optics Arthur G Bennett Ronald B Rabbetts -Butterworth- Heinemann Second edition 1989

2. Visual Optics and Refraction- A clinical approach David D Michaels: The C.V. Mosby Co., 1985.

Reference Books:

1. Clinical Optics, Andrew R Elkington& Helena J Frank - Blackwell Scientific Publications Oxford – London
Optics and Refraction A User-friendly guide David Miller 1991 Gower Medical Publishing

Session Plan

Session 1

Review of Geometrical Optics

Session 3.

Session 4.

Session 5.

visual acuityVA
visual acuity.

Session 6.

light and dark adaptaion .

Session 7

Session 8

Refractive anomalies and their causes

refractive errors

Case Studies

Case Studies

Our Main Teachers

Dispensing Modern Refraction Techniques