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Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to:
Superposition of Collinear Harmonic oscillations: Linearity and Superposition Principle. Superposition of two collinear oscillations having (1) equal frequencies and (2) different frequencies (Beats).
Wave Motion: Plane and Spherical Waves. Longitudinal and Transverse Waves.Plane Progressive (Travelling) Waves.Wave Equation. Particle and Wave Velocities. Differential Equation. The pressure of a Longitudinal Wave. Energy Transport. The intensity of Wave. Water Waves: Ripple and Gravity Waves.
The velocity of Waves: Velocity of Transverse Vibrations of Stretched Strings. The velocity of Longitudinal Waves in a Fluid in a Pipe. Newton’s Formula for Velocity of Sound. Laplace’s Correction.
Superposition of Two Harmonic Waves: Standing (Stationary) Waves in a String: Fixed and Free Ends. Analytical Treatment.Phase and Group Velocities. Changes with respect to Position and Time.The energy of the Vibrating String.Transfer of Energy.normal modes of Stretched Strings. Plucked and Struck Strings. Melde’s Experiment.Longitudinal Standing Waves and Normal Modes.Open and Closed Pipes.Superposition of N Harmonic Waves.
Interference: Huygens Principle.Division of amplitude and wavefront. Young’s double-slit experiment.Lloyd’s Mirror and Fresnel’s Biprism. Phase change on reflection: Stokes’ treatment. Interference in Thin Films: parallel and wedge-shaped films. Fringes of equal inclination (Haidinger Fringes); Fringes of equal thickness (Fizeau Fringes). Newton’s Rings: Measurement of wavelength and refractive index.
Practice 1. To determine the wavelength of sodium light using Newton’s Rings.
Practice 2. To determine the refractive index of liquid using Newton's Rings.
Interferometer: Michelson Interferometer-(1) Idea of the form of fringes (No theory required), (2) Determination of Wavelength, (3) Wavelength Difference, (4) refractive index, and (5) Visibility of Fringes. Fabry-Perot interferometer.
Practice 3. To determine the wavelength of sodium source using Michelson’s interferometer.
Practice 4. To determine the refractive index of a thin glass plate using Michelson’s interferometer.
Practice 5. To determine the wavelength of a laser using Michelson’s interferometer.
Fraunhofer diffraction: Single slit. Circular aperture, Resolving Power of a telescope. Double slit. Multiple slits. Diffraction grating. Resolving power of grating.
Practice 6. To determine the wavelength of Na source using a plane diffraction grating.
Practice 7. To determine dispersive power and resolving power of a plane diffraction grating.
Fresnel Diffraction: Fresnel’s Assumptions. Fresnel’s half-Period Zones for Plane Wave. Explanation of Rectilinear Propagation of Light. Theory of a Zone Plate: Multiple Foci of a Zone Plate. Fresnel’s Integral, Fresnel diffraction pattern of a straight edge, a slit, and a wire.
Practice 8. To study Lissajous Figures.
Practice 9. To calculate the velocity of ultrasonic sound through different liquid media
Practice 10. To calculate the adiabatic compressibility of the given liquid
Practice 11. To calculate the beam of divergence and spot size of the given laser beam.
Practice 12. To investigate the motion of coupled oscillators
Optics, Ajoy Ghatak, 2008, Tata McGraw Hill.
1. Waves: Berkeley Physics Course, vol. 3, Francis Crawford, 2007, Tata McGraw-Hill.
2. Fundamentals of Optics, F.A. Jenkins and H.E. White, 1981, McGraw-Hill
3. Principles of Optics, Max Born and Emil Wolf, 7th Edn., 1999, Pergamon Press.
4. The Physics of Vibrations and Waves, H. J. Pain, 2013, John Wiley and Sons.
5. The Physics of Waves and Oscillations, N.K. Bajaj, 1998, Tata McGraw Hill.
6. Fundamentals of Optics, A. Kumar, H.R. Gulati, and D.R. Khanna, 2011, R. ChandPublications.
Superposition of Two Harmonic Waves: Standing (Stationary) Waves in a String: Fixed and Free End: Analytical Treatment.
Newton’s Rings: Measurement of wavelength and refractive index.
Mr. T Jaganathapatro obtained his M.Sc and M.Tech degree from Berhampur University. His specializations include Electronics and Communication and Electrodynamics. He has invested 05 years of teaching and mentoring to the students in technical and non-technical institutions. He has published many papers in national and international journals of repute, and also presented papers in national […]