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By the end of the course, learners should have a knowledge of:
● The cell biology of all major groups of organisms, including microorganisms, plants and animals
● How genome organisation differs in the major groups of organisms
● The complex interactions between nucleus and cytoplasm that determine how cells function
● Basic concepts of how cells become specialised into different types in complex organisms
● How the cytoskeleton is organised and its role in cellular function
At the end of Cell and Molecular Biology course:
• learners should have developed knowledge of the major ideas and current experimental approaches in cell biology and molecular biology.
• learners should be able to progress to related courses in Biological Sciences, including Biochemistry, Genetics, Neuroscience, Pathology, Plant Sciences.
Module I: Biological Membranes And Transport Of Biomolecules.
Structure of biological membranes: Cell wall (Prokaryotic versus eukaryotic), the plasma membrane, Membrane proteins, Mobility of membrane proteins, Membrane biogenesis: Cell wall and cell membrane biogenesis, Cell-Cell and cell-matrix interactions: Extracellular matrix and cell-matrix interactions (Matrix structural proteins, Matrix Polysaccharides; Matrix adhesion proteins), Cell-Cell interactions (Adhesion Junctions, Tight Junctions, Gap junctions, Plasmodesmata), Membrane Trafficking (Pumps, channels, transporters): Ions channels, Active transport driven by ATP hydrolysis, Active transport driven by Ion gradients, Passive transport, Facilitated transport, Endocytosis (Phagocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis).
Glucose uptake assay
Module II: Cytoskeleton, Cell motility and Cell division.
Structure and Organization of Actin Filaments: assembly and disassembly of actin filaments, organization of actin filaments, association of actin filaments with the plasma membrane, Intermediate filaments: assembly of intermediate filaments, intracellular organization of intermediate filaments, The microtubule: structure and dynamic organization of microtubules, Eukaryotic cell division: Mitosis and Meiosis, Cell death and cell renewal: Programmed cell death, stem cells and maintenance of adult tissues. Cell cycle and its regulation and check points.
Plasmid isolation (miniprep).
Module III: Intercellular communication and the Nucleus.
Signaling molecules and their receptors, modes of cell signaling, Cell surface receptors, G Protein-coupled receptors. Receptor protein tyrosine kinases, cytokine receptors, Pathways of Intracellular signal transduction, second messengers, the cAMP Pathway, cGMP, Nuclear organization, traffic between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, chromosomes, Chromatin organization (DNA packaging), Lampbrush chromosome, Polytene chromosome, telocentric chromosome, Inter-phase chromatin, Euchromatin and Heterochromatin, karyotype and its significance, the Nucleolus.
Extraction of DNA from the fish fins.
Module IV: Replication, Protein-Nucleic Acid Interactions and Transcription.
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication: DNA polymerases, replisome, primase, telomerase, inhibitors of replication. DNA synthesis by reverse transcription, Prokaryotic transcription mechanisms, Prokaryotic transcriptional regulation (Operon concept), Eukaryotic transcription –core promoter and general transcription factors (GTFs), Eukaryotic transcription–activating transcription factors and enhancers, Post-Transcriptional Control of Gene Expression.
Visualization of DNA by performing agarose gel electrophoresis and extraction of DNA from the agarose gel.
Module V: RNA Processing, Translation and Protein sorting.
RNA-processing, mRNA export. Post transcriptional modification and: RNA splicing, spliceosome, RNA editing, Genetic code. Translation: Protein synthesis, post-translational modifications: Glycosylation, Phosphorylation, Ubiquitination, Inhibitors of transcription and translation. Protein sorting and Targeting: Co translational targeting and post translational targeting. Protein targeting to Mitochondria,Chloroplast, Endoplasmic reticulum, Peroxisome and Plasmamembrane. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: role of chromatin in regulating gene expression and gene silencing.
DNA amplification using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).
Module VI: Protein Structure, Function and Evolution
Unique principles of protein structure and molecular machines (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary structures), Study of protein structures (circulsar dichorism, X-ray crystallography and cryo electron microscopy), How proteins have evolved and how analysis of protein structure can help us to understand the evolutionary relationships between different proteins and their function.
Module VII: Enzyme Catalysis and Protein Engineering
How the peptide and protein structures discussed in the preceding module can assume functions, Enzyme catalysis, mechanism and kinetics, Co-operative (allosteric) molecular basis of metabolic regulation, Principles of protein folding and stability, Protein engineering and mechanistic enzymology–how to create novel, functional proteins, by rational design, semi-rational approaches, and by directed evolution.
In silico membrane-receptor and ligand interaction studies using DISCOVERY STUDIO (BIOVIA).
1. Geoffrey M. Cooper, Robert E. Hausman (Boston University). The Cell: A Molecular Approach. ASM Press, Washington D.C. Fourth edition.
2. Cell and molecular biology Robertis, De and Robertis Lea and Febiger. Eighth Edition.
1. Molecular Biology of the Cell Alberts, B., et al. 6th Rev ed. Taylor & Francis; 2014 ISBN 978-0-8153-4432-2 (hard), 978-0-8153-4524-4
2. Essential Cell Biology Alberts, B., et al. 4th Rev ed. Garland; 2013 ISBN 9780815344544
3. Lewin’s Genes XII Krebs, J.E. et al. Jones & Bartlett; 2018 ISBN 9781284104493
4. Molecular Cell Biology Lodish H. et al. 8th ed. W.H. Freeman and Company; 2016 ISBN 9781464183393
Cell wall and cell membrane biogenesis
Lipids and lipid modification
Cell-Cell and cell-matrix interactions
Practice 1: Glucose uptake assay (2h)
Structure and Organization of Actin Filaments
The microtubule cytoskeleton
Eukaryotic cell division
Cell death and cell renewal
Practice 2: Plasmid isolation (miniprep) (2h)
Signaling molecules and their receptors, modes of cell signaling
Pathways of Intracellular signal transduction, second messengers, the cAMP Pathway, cGMP
Practice 3: Extraction of DNA from the fish fins. (2h)
DNA & RNA structure
DNA synthesis and DNA Repair
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription mechanisms
Post-Transcriptional Control of Gene Expression
RNA Processing and Translation
Practice 4: Agarose Gel Electrophoresis and Extraction of DNA from the agarose gel. (2h)
Polymerase chain reaction
How those proteins may be modified for use in specific experiments (e.g. localization, protein interactions, etc.)
Regulation of gene expression (e.g. RNAi, CRISPR-Cas9)
Practice 5: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). (2h)
Unique principles of protein structure
How the peptide and protein structures assume functions
Enzyme catalysis, mechanism and kinetics
Co-operative (allosteric) molecular basis of metabolic regulation
Principles of protein folding and stability
Practice 6: In silico membrane-receptor and ligand interaction studies using DISCOVERY STUDIO (BIOVIA). (2h)
Have specialization in Biochemistry and Molecular biology. Qualified GATE and NET. Research interest in Biochemistry, Microbiology and taxonomy. Teaching expertise in subject Cell biology, molecular biology, Biochemistry, Genetics, Plant physiology and metabolism.