Domain Track: Food Processing


Dr. Ruby Pandey


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Domain Track Title : Food Processing


Track Total Credits (T-P-P) (3-15-11) Total 29


Course Divisions

1. Processing Technology of Cereals and Millets CUFP2310(1-2-0)
2. Processing Technology of Legumes and Oilseeds CUFP2311(1-2-0)
3. Processing Technology of Fruits, Vegetables, Spices and Condiments CUFP2312(1-2-0)
4. Product Development and Packaging Technologies CUFP2313(0-3-0)
5. Food Standards and Regulations and HACCP Systems CUFP2314(0-3-0)
6. Sensory Evaluation and Nutritional Labelling of Foods CUFP2315(0-3-0)
7. AELP Linked Project CUFP2316(0-0-11)

Domain Track Objectives:

• Impart an understanding of general process flow of various food products, physical principles of operation for various types of equipment and the impact of the processing on the physical, chemical and sensory properties of the food products
• Understand the concepts and principles of processing and packaging techniques and the effects of processing parameters on product safety and quality
• Gain insights into the scientific, regulatory, and consumer interests that interact in determining the safety of food

Domain Track Learning Outcomes:

Upon completion students will be able to:
• Operate and maintain processing equipment
• Formulate and make processed food products
• Adopt hygienic and sanitation practices during product preparation
• Understand and develop HACCP plans based on the standards and regulations
• Perform sensory evaluation and develop nutrition labels for food products

Domain Syllabus:

1. Processing Technology of Cereals and Millets (1-2-0)
General Introduction, Properties of cereals and millets, Paddy Processing, Parboiling of paddy, Drying, Wheat processing, Corn milling, Malting of cereals, Rice fortification methods, Food packaging and quality
Physical properties of cereals, Physical and frictional properties of cereals, Moisture content of grain, Parboiling and cooking quality of paddy, Preparation of puffed and flaked rice and sorghum. Estimation of milling qualities in a rice mill, Proximate analysis of cereal based products, Estimation of moisture content and drying time calculations

2. Processing Technology of Legumes and Oilseeds (1-2-0)
General Introduction, Morphology, Pulse Milling, Pulse Processing, Oil seed Milling and problems in oil seed milling, Refining of oils
Esimation of physical properties of legumes and oilseeds, Determination of proximate composition of selected pulses and oilseeds, Preconditioning of pulses before milling, Laboratory milling of selected pulses and oilseeds and its quality evaluation, Laboratory refining of selected oils, Study of cooking quality of pulses

3.Processing Technology of Fruits, Vegetables, Spices and Condiments (1-2-0)
General Introduction, Primary processing and packaging, Canning, FSSAI specifications and food quality, Value added products, Spices and Condiments, Spice Board of India
Primary processing of selected fruits and vegetables, Estimation of TSS, pH, Acidity, and Ascorbic acid, Study of steps of Can making process, Processing of food using salt, high concentration of sugar, acidulants, and fermentation techniques, Drying of fruits and vegetables using freeze-drying, Adulteration test of spices

4. Product Develoment and Packaging Technologies (0-3-0)
Product design process, Product development process, Formulation and composition description, Process flow diagram, Process development, Packaging principles, Types of packaging - MAP, CAP, VP, Preparation and packaging of food products

5. Food Standards and Regulations and HACCP Systems (0-3-0)
Codex Alimentarius, FSSAI, ISO, SQF, GMP's, SOP's, SSOP's, FHP, HACCP Principles, APEDA, Spice Board

6. Sensory Evaluation and Nutritional Labelling of Products (0-3-0)
Sensory attributes of foods, Sensory evaluation methodology, Threshold measurements, Difference Tests, Descriptive analytical methods, Consumer tests, Nutritional labelling

7. AELP Linked Project (0-0-11)
1. Formulate and Preparation of Products
2. Develop HACCP plans for formulated products
3. Identify standards and regulations for the food products
4. Sensory evaluation of the developed products
5. Label and develop appropriate packaging and storage methods

Suggested References
• Post Harvest Technology of Cereals, Pulses and Oilseeds. A.Chakravarty
• Industrial Processing of Fruits and Vegetables. U.D. Chavan and J.V. Patil. 2013. AstralInternational Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
• Advances in Preservation and Processing Technologies of Fruits and Vegetables. S. Rajarathnam and R.S. Ramteke. 2011. New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi.
• Fruit & Vegetable Preservation: Principles and Practices. R.P. Srivastava and Sanjeev Kumar. 2002., 3rd Ed. International Book Distribution Co., Delhi.
• Preservation of Fruits and Vegetables. Girdhari Lal, G.S. Siddappa and G.L. Tandon. 1959. ICAR, New Delhi.
• Spices and Condiments. Pruthi, J.S., 1980. Academic Press, New York.
• Methods for Developing New Food Products – An Instructional Guide. Fadi Aramouni, Kathryn Deschenes, 2015
• Food Packaging – Principles and Practice. Gordon L. Robertson. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group
• Sensory Evaluation of Food – Principles and Practice, Harry T. Lawless and Hildegrade Heymann

Session Plan

1. Processing Technology of Cereals and Millets

Session 1.1
Present Status and Future Prospects of Cereals and Millets, Morphology, Chemical Composition, and Nutritive Value
Problem Session on Physical Properties of Cereals

PDF -Morphology and Properties of Cereals

Session1. 2
Physico-chemical Properties of Cereals
To Determine Physical and Frictional Properties of Cereals

PDF -Physical Properties of Cereals

PDF -Thermal and Frictional Properties of Cereals

Session 1.3
Paddy Processing and Rice Milling

Determination of Moisture Content of Grain

PDF -Paddy Processing

Video -Rice Processing

Video -Mini Rice Mill

Video -Moisture Content - Wet and Dry Basis

Video -Calculating Moisture Content - Wet and Dry Basis

Session1. 4
Parboiling of Paddy

Study of Parboiling of Paddy

PDF -Paddy Parboiling

PDF -Paddy Parboiling Methods

Video -Automated Paddy Parboiling Process
Video -Paddy Parboiling Process

Session1. 5
Wheat Processing

Milling of Wheat

PDF -Wheat Processing

Video -Wheat Milling
Video -Wheat Flour Milling

Session 1.6
Corn Milling

Preparation of Popcorn

PDF -Corn Milling

Video -Corn Flour Milling
Video -Industrial Popcorn Machine

Session1. 7
Malting of Cereals

Preparation of Puffed and Flaked Rice

PDF -Malting of Cereals

Video -Cereal Malting
Video -Rice Flakes Machinery

Session1. 8
Rice Fortification Methods

Estimation of Milling Qualities and Milling Efficiency of a Rice Milling Machine

PDF -Rice Enrichment and Fortification

Video -Rice Fortification
Video -Rice processing

Session1. 9
Milling of Barley

Study of Milling of Barley and Oats

PDF -Milling of Barley

Video -Oats Processing

Session 1.10
Preparation of Noodles
Milling of Rye and Sorghum
Video -Automatic Noodle Making Machine

Video -Miling of Sorghum

Session 1.11
Determination of EMC and Calculating Drying Depth

Video -Determination of Drying Depths

PDF -Food Processing of Cereals Manual

2. Processing Technology of Legumes and Oilseeds

Session 2.1
Present Status and Future Prospects of Legumes and Oilseeds
Morphology of Legumes and Oilseeds
Determination of Physical Properties of Legumes
PDF -Morphology of Legumes and Oilseeds

Session 2.1

Video -Moisture and Ash Analysis

Session 2.2
Anti-nutriitonal Compounds in Legumes and Oilseeds
Classification and Types of Legumes and Oilseeds
PDF -Anti nutrients compounds

Session 2.2

Video -Antinutrients in Plants

Session 2.3
Types of Milling Methods, Machinery, Milling Quality and Efficiency
Determination of Proximate Composition of Selected Pulses and Oilseeds
PDF -Pulse Milling

Session 2.3

Video -Dal Milling

Session 2.4
Factors Affecting Quality and Quantity in Dhal Milling
PDF -Factors Affecting Pulse Milling

Session 2.4

Video -Pulse Processing

Session 2.5
Pulse Processing
Preconditioning of Pulses before Milling
PDF -Processing of Pulses

Session 2.5

Video -Lentil Peeling and Splitting
Video -Pulses Cleaning Machine

Session 2.6
Methods of Removal of Anti-nutritional Compounds from Pulses
Laboratory Milling of Selected Pulses and its Quality Evaluation

Session 2.6

Video -Methods for Removing Antinutrional Compounds

Session 2.7
Oil Extaction Methods
Mini Oil Mill
PDF -Oilseed Milling

Session 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10

Video -Mini Oil Mill

Session 2.8
Oil Milling Quality and Efficiency
Laboratory Milling of Selected Oilseeds
PDF -Oilseed Extraction

Video -Oil Extraction Machine

Session 2.9
Methods of Removal of Anti-nutritional Compounds from Oilseeds

Video -Anti Nutritional Compounds in Nuts

Session 2.10
Problems in Oil Milling and Desolvenitization
Laboratory Refining of Selected Oilseeds
PDF -Refining of Oil

Video -Refining of Oils - Degumming Process

Session 2.11
Hydrogenation of Oils
Hydrogenation of Oils
PDF -Hydrogenation of Oil

Session 2.11

Video -Hydrogenation of Oils

Session 2.12
Solvent Extraction
Super Critical Extraction Unit
PDF -Solvent extraction
PDF -Super Critical Fluid Extraction

PDF -Processing of Legumes and Oilseeds Manual

Session 2.12 (1)
Session 2.12 (2)

Video -Solvent Extraction Plant

3. Processing Technology of Fruits, Vegetables, Spices, and Condiments

Session 3.1
Production and Processing of Fruits and Vegetables, Principles and Preservation Methods
Primary Processing of Selected Fruits and Vegetables
PDF -Study Material Lecture 01- Importance and Scope of Fruit and Vegetable Preservation in India
PDF -Practical 1

Food Processing Policy Paper

Video -Primary Processing of Local Vgetables

Session 3.2
Primary Processing and Packaging
Estimation of Total Solids
PDF -Study Material Lecture 02 - Primary Processing and Packaging
PDF -Practical 2 Determination of Total Soluble Solids

Video -Fruit and Vegetable Processing
Video -Food Quality Refractometer

Session 3.3

Estimation of pH and Acidity of Products
PDF -Study Material Lecture 03 - Canning
PDF -Practical 3 Determination of pH

Video -General Principles of Canning
Video -Canned Vegetable Process
Video -Determination of pH

Session 3.4

FSSAI Specifications and Food Quality
Estimation of Ascorbic Acid and Effect of Heat Treatment
PDF -Study Material Lecture 04 FSSAI Specification for Jam Jelly Marmalade and Glazed, Crystallised Fruits
PDF -Practical 4 Determination of Ascorbic Acid

Ascorbic acid content determination (1)

Video -Food Testing in India - FSSAI
Video -Analysis of Ascorbic Acid

Video Vitamin C Titration

Video -Jelly Preparation

Video -Preparation of Marmalade

Video -Food Recall

Video -Food Safety

Session 3.5
Value Added Products

Steps in Canning
PDF -Study Material Lecture 05 Value Added Products - Pectin and Vinegar
PDF -Practical 5 Canning Steps

Video -Canning Process

Session 3.6
Spices and Condiments
Preparation and Evaluation of Pectin Products
PDF -Study Material Lecture 6.1 Technology of Spices and Condiments
PDF -Practical 6 Extraction and Characterization of Pectin from Apple Malus Pumila Cv Amri Peel Waste

Video -Apple Pectin
Video -Apple Cider Vinegar

Session 3.7

Value Added Products from Spices and Condiments

Food processing with High Sugar - Preparation of Jam
PDF -Study Material Lecture 6.2 Present Status of Indian Spice Industries
PDF -Practical 7 Preparation of Jam

Video -Preparation of Jam

Session 3.8
Spice board of India

Processing of Food with Salt - Pickle Preparation
PDF -Study Material Lecture 6.3 Nomenclature and Classification of Spices and Condiments
PDF -Practical 8 - Pickels

Video -Pickle Preparation

Session 3.9
Processing of Food with Acidulants
PDF -Study Material Lecture 6.4 Chemical Composition of Spices and Condiments
PDF -Practical 9 Vinegar Pickles

Video -Chilli Pickling

Session 3.10

Drying of Apple and Pineapple Slices using Cabinet Dryer
PDF -Practical 10 Drying of Fruits and Vegetables

Video -Dried Fruit

Session 3.11
Drying of Fruits and Vegetables using Freeze Dryer

Video -Freeze Drying of Food

Session 3.12
Processing of Foods - Fermentation and Preparation of Sauerkraut
PDF -Practical 11 Preparation of Sauerkraut

Video -Preparation of Sauerkraut

Session 3.13
Hands on Training in Gram Tarang Foods

Jelly Preparation

4. Product Development and Processing Technologies

Session 4.1
Product Development Strategy

PDF -Product Development Strategy
Session 4.1_ Introduction to Cereal Grains Milling Operations
Video -Reasons for New Products

Video -Reasons for New Food Product - Consumer Concerns

Session 4.2
Product Design Specification
PDF -Product Design Specification

Session 4.2_Rice Milling

Video -3D Food Printing

Session 4.3
Product Design Development
PDF -Product Design Development
Session 4.3 – Wheat, Corn, Oats Milling
Video -Stages of Product Development

Session 4.4
Process Development
PDF -Process Development

Session 4.4 – Pulse Milling

Video -Product Formulations and Process Development

Session 4.5
Product Testing
PDF -Product Testing

Session 4.5 – Technology of Bread Making

Video -Shelf Life Testing of Food Products

Session 4.6
Product Commercialization
PDF -Product Commercialization
Session 4.6 – Technology of Biscuit Making
Video -Coca Cola Strategy

Session 4.7
Product Launch and Evaluation
PDF -Product Launch and Evaluation

Session 4.7 – Breakfast Cereals Processing

Session 4.8
Future of product Development Process
PDF -Future of Product Development

Session 4.8 – Oil Extraction Technology

Video -Future of Food - 2025

Session 4.9
Product Development - Examples
Session 4.9 – Packaging Technology
Video -Product Development - Beverages
Video -Product Development - Dairy
Video -Pulses Replacing Eggs and Dairy
PDF -Product Development for Gut Microbiome

Session 4.10
Deteriorative Reaction in Foods
PDF - Deteriorative Reactions in Foods

Video -Causes of Food Spoilage and Deterioration

Session 4.11
Shelf Life of Food

PDF -Shelf Life of Foods

Video -Food Shelf Life - What you Need to Know

Session 4.12
Food Packaging Closure and Sealing Systems

PDF - Food-Packaging Closure and Sealing Systems

Video -Packaging and Sealing Systems

Session 4.13
Packaging of Horticultural Products
PDF - Packaging of Horticultural Products

Video -Active Packaging to Extend Shelf Life of Fruit

Session 4.14
Packaging of Cereals, Snack and Confectionery Foods
PDF - Packaging of Cereal and Millet based Products

Video -How Skittles are Made
Video -Manufacturing of Kitkat

Session 4.15
Packaging of Dairy Products
PDF - Packaging of Dairy Products

Video -Milk Bottling Line

Session 4.16
Packaging of Beverages
PDF - Packaging of Beverages

Video -Coca - Cola Manufacturing

Session 4.17
Modified Atmospheric Packaging
PDF - Modified Atmosphere Packaging

Video -MAP
Video -MAP -2

Session 4.18
Active and Intelligent Packaging
PDF - Active and Intelligent Packaging

Video -Intelligent Food Packaging

Session 4.19
Aseptic Packaging of Foods
PDF -Aseptic Packaging Aseptic Packaging of Foods

Video -Aseptic Packaging

5. Food Standards and Regulations and HACCP Systems

Session 5.1
Codex Alimenatarius

Website -Codex Alimentarius - International Standards

TQMCODEX Alimentarius

Video -CODEX and the Food we Eat
PDF -Labelling Standards for Mango Chutney

Session 5.2
ISO Standards for Food Safety Management
Website -ISO

PDF -ISO - Food Safety Management

Session 5.3
Safe Quality Food (SQF)
Website -One World One Standard

PDF -SQF Certification Guide

Session 5.4
Global Food Safety Initiative
Website -Safe Food for Consumers Everywhere

PDF -The Roadmap to GFSI Certification

Session 5.5
Total Quality Management
Website -Total Quality Management

Session 5.6
Food Hygiene
Food Hygiene
PDF -FAO Guidelines for Food Hygiene with HACCP

Session 5.7
Food Safety Standards Authority of India
Website -FSSAI
Website -FSS Act

Session 5.8
Bureau of Indian Standards
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)
Website -BIS

Session 5.9
AGMARK Certification
Website -AGMARK

Session 5.10
Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority
Website -APEDA

Session 5.11
Spices Board India
Spices Board
Website -Quality Standards for Spices

Session 5.12
Website -Essential Guide to HACCP
HACCP - ebook


Session 5.13
Pre HACCP Activities and Pre-requisite Programs
PDF -Pre-HACCP Activities
PDF -Prerequisites - GMP and SOP
Video -Pre-requisite Programs
Video -GMP's

Session 5.14
Video -SSOP
Video -10 Principles of GMP's

Session 5.15

Session 5.16
Hazard Analysis
Hazards in Foods
Principle 1 Hazard Analysis
Video -Hazard Types
Video -Hazard Analysis

Session 5.17
Identify Critical Control Points
Principle 2 Identifying CCPs
Video -CCP's
Video -Identify CCP

Session 5.18
Establish Critical Limits
Principle 3 Establishing Critical Limits
Video -Establish Critical Limits

Session 5.19
Establish Monitoring Procedures
Principle 4 Monitoring CL
Video -Monitoring Procedures

Session 5.20
Establish Corrective Actions
Principle 5 Establishing Corrective Actions
Video -Corrective Actions

Session 5.21
Establishing Verification Procedures
Principle 6 Verification Procedures
Video -Verification vs Validation

Session 5.22
Establishing Record-keeping and Documentation Procedures
Principle 7 Establish Recordkeeping
Video -Record Keeping
Video -HACCP - Principle 7

Session 5.23
HACCP Comprehensive
Video -HACCP Guide

6. Sensory Evaluation and Nutritional Labelling of Products

Session 6.1
Sensory Evaluation - Brief Background

PDF - Introduction and overview

Session 6.2
Sensory Evaluation - Experimental Design and Procedures

PDF - Sensory Testing Protocol
Video -Sensory Lab

Session 6.3
Discrimination Tests

PDF -Discrimination Tests
Video -Techniques in Sensory Evaluation

Video -Duo-Trio Test
Video -Hedonic Scale

Session 6.4
Sensory Thresholds
PDF -Sensory Thresholds

Video -Threshold for Taste

Session 6.5
Descriptive Analysis
PDF -Descriptive Analysis

Video -Descriptive Panel

Session 6.6
Flavour and Texture Analysis
Video - Science of Flavour
PDF -Texture Evaluation
Video -Texture of Bread
Video -Texture Profile Analysis

Session 6.7
Evaluation of Colour and Appearance
PDF - Measurement of Color and Appearance

Video -Perception of Colour

Session 6.8
Consumer Questionnaire - Field Tests

PDF -Consumer Questionnaire

Video -Consumer Panel

Session 6.9
Statistical Concepts for Sensory Analysis
PDF - Sensory Analysis_Statistical Concepts
Video -ANOVA

Session 6.10
Test Sensitivity
PDF -Statistical Test Sensitivity

Session 6.11
Food Labelling
PDF -Food-Labeling-Guide

Session 6.12
Nutrient Labelling
PDF -Nutrition Labelling Facts
Video -Label Reading
Video -Reading Label

Session 6.13
Labelling Claims
Video -Labelling Claims
Video -GMO Identification
Video -Reading Organic Label
Video -Are Food Labels a Scam
Video -Added Sugars - Health Claim

Session 6.14
Calorie Calculations
Video -Calorie Information
Video -How to Count Calories

Session 6.15
FSSAI Labelling Standards
PDF -FSSAI Guidelines on Labelling of Food Products
PDF -FSSAI New Labelling Requirements

Session 6.16
CODEX Guidelines
PDF -Food Labelling - CODEX Guidelines

Session 6.17
Nutrient Labelling Going Forward
PDF -Nutrition Labelling Challenges
PDF -Food and Nutrition Labelling - Past, Present and Way Forward

Video -New Nutrition Facts Label

Session 6.18
Creating Nutrition Label
Video -Nutrition Label
Video -Software for Dietary Calculations

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Our Main Teachers

Dr. Ruby Pandey

Food Processing Domain Coordinator

Presently, I am working as an assistant professor in the Department of Agriculture Engineering, CUTM, Paralakhemundi, Odisha. I have done Ph.D. in the Agricultural and Food Engineering Department of the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur and have carried out my research on the topic “Microwave assisted solvent extraction of rice bran oil”. I have done M.Tech. […]

Dr. Kakani has a PhD in Food Science and Technology, an MS (Food Science and Technology) with emphasis on food microbiology, and MAB (Master in Agribusiness Management) from Texas A&M University, College Station, USA. She holds a bachelor’s degree in Agricultural Sciences from Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad. She specializes in the area of […]