Domain Track: Dairy Processing and Development

Teacher

Dr. Rajashree Jena

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Domain Courses

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Domain Track Title: Dairy Processing and Development

 

Credits (T-P-P): 3-15-10 (28 credits)

 

Domain Track Objectives:

  • To acquaint students about the processes involved in the processing of raw milk with constructional details, operation and maintenance of dairy equipments.
  • To impart a comprehensive knowledge on dairy starters for production of health beneficial fermented foods.
  • To apprise students with the quality control and safety of milk and milk products.

Domain Track Learning Outcomes:

  • Able to prepare standardized milks as well as able to handle and maintain equipments related to raw milk processing.
  • Implement improvement strategies on developing better dairy starters for production of fermented foods with therapeutic properties.
  • Detect adulterants, preservatives and neutralizers in milk and milk products.

Courses Division:

  1. Milk Processing in Dairy Industry (1-2-0)
  2. Dairy Starters in Fermented Milk Products (1-2-0)
  3. Quality Assurance in Dairy Industry (1-2-0)
  4. Dairy Products Development (0-3-0)
  5. Synbiotic Dairy Foods (0-3-0)
  6. Quality Analysis of Milk and Milk Products (0-3-0)
  7. Projects in Units/Industry/Lab (0-0-10)

Domain Syllabus:

 

1. Milk Processing in Dairy Industry

Theory

1.1. Collection and Transportation of milk: Organization of milk collection routes, practices for collection of milk, preservation at farm, refrigeration, natural microbial inhibitor, reception, chilling, classification and storage.

1.2. Standardization of milk: Addition or removal of milk fat to make different milk products, numericals.

1.3. Mechanical Separation: Sedimentation, Filtration, Centrifugal separation, Bactofugation.

1.4. Homogenization: Classification, power requirement, care and maintenance

1.5. Pasteurization: Batch, flash and HTST pasteurization

1.6. Packaging machines: Pouch filling machine pre-pack and aseptic filling bulk handling system

1.7. Mixing and agitation: Theory and purpose of mixing, Equipment used

1.8. Evaporation: Basic principles and classification

1.9. Drying: Drum drying, Spray drying

1.10. Membrane processing: Ultra filtration, Reverse Osmosis and electro dialysis, Materials for membrane construction, Ultra filtration of milk, Effect of milk constituents on operation, membranes for electro-dialysis.

Practice

1.1. Familiarization with equipments for reception of milk in plant, platform test.

1.2. Cream separation: parts of separator and the process.

1.3. Preparation of special milks: toned and double toned milk.

1.4. Detection of adulterant and preservatives in milk.

1.5. Constructional details, operation and maintenance of homogenizers.

1.6. Assessment of homogenization efficiency in milk.

1.7. Constructional details, operation and maintenance of HTST pasteurizer.

1.8. Constructional details, operation and maintenance of pouch filling machine.

1.9. Constructional details, operation and maintenance of multiple effect evaporator.

1.10. Constructional details, operation and maintenance of spray drier.

1.11. Constructional details, operation and maintenance of reverse osmosis and ultra-filtration system.

Suggested Readings

  1. Ahmed, T. 1985. Dairy Plant System Engineering. Kitab Mahal, K.L. Agencies Pvt. ltd., New Delhi.
  2. Ahmed, T. 1990. Dairy Plant System Engineering and Management. Kitab Mahal, K.L. Agencies Pvt. ltd., New Delhi.
  3. Anantakrishnan, C.P. and Simha, N. N. 1987. Technology and Engineering of Dairy Plant Operations. Laxmi Publ., Delhi.
  4. Food Engineering Operations. 1969. Elsevier Publ. Co., Amsterdam, New York.
  5. Farrall, A. W. 1963. Engineering for Dairy and Food Products. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  6. Gardner, A. W. 1971. Industrial drying. Leonard Hill Publ., London.
  7. Food Engineering and Dairy Technology. V. A. Kessler Publ., Freising, Germany.1981.

 2. Dairy Starters in Fermented Milk Products

Theory

2.1. Concept, importance and types of starter cultures in dairy industry.

2.2. Modern trends in propagation, production and preservation methods of starter cultures (liquid, spray drying, vacuum drying, freeze-drying, frozen concentrate, concentrated dried cultures, DVS Starters).

2.3. Metabolism of starter cultures (carbohydrate, protein, citrate).

2.4. Production of metabolites and antibacterial compounds by starters.

2.5. Starter defects and failures.

2.6. Bacteriophages of dairy starters and their impact on dairy industry.

2.7. Lactic acid bacteria as probiotics in development of health foods.

2.8. Role of starters in the preparation of various fermented milks (dahi, yoghurt, acidophilus milk and Yakult) and its associated defects.

2.9. Nutritional and therapeutic significance of fermented milks.

2.10. Cheese Starters: Bacterial and mold ripened cheeses, Rennet substitutes.

Practice

2.1. Testing purity  of  starter  cultures  by  Gram’s  staining,  catalase  test;  creatine test

2.2. Testing starter activity by dye reduction tests, Horrell-Elliker, White Head & Cox test.

2.3. Preparation of sterilized reconstituted skim milk and propagation of starter cultures

2.4. Preservation of starter cultures by freeze-drying techniques.

2.5. Preparation of DVS starters.

2.6. Effect of physical factors (temperature, pH, salt and Sugar) on dairy starters.

2.7. Effect of presence of antibiotic residues in milk on starter activity.

2.8. Detection of bacteriophages in cheese whey by plaque assay method.

2.9. Microbial quality of milk for preparation of fermented milks.

2.10. Preparation and microbial examination of dahi, yoghurt and cultured butter milk.

2.11. Analysis of cheese for total spore count.

Suggested Readings

  1. Marth & Steele- Applied Dairy Microbiology- 2nd ed. Taylor and Francis, New York
  2. Cogan, T. M. and Accolas, J. P. (1995). Dairy Starter Cultures. VCH Publ., USA.
  3. Farnworth, E. R. (2008). Handbook of Fermented Functional Foods. 2nd ed. CRC Press, USA.
  4. Tamime, A Y. and Robinson, R. K. (1999). Yoghurt Science and Technology, 2nd ed. Woodhead Publ. Ltd. and CRC Press LLC, USA.

 3.Quality Assurance in Dairy Industry

Theory

3.1. Awareness about Quality and Safety of Dairy Foods: Concepts of quality control, quality assurance and food safety; Global quality and food safety standards, Integrated food law, its main features and functions.

3.2. Introduction to Food Safety Management System: Concepts of Quality Management System (QMS)–ISO: 9000:2000, ISO: 22000; Principles of QMS; Standard requirements for QMS

3.3. HACCP concept and principle with special reference to biological hazards in dairy foods, TQM tools and techniques.

3.4. Role of national and international food regulatory systems and standards: with respect to quality and safety of milk and milk products: FSSAI, PFA, AGMARK, BIS ISO, IDF, Codex, etc.

3.5. Introduction of risk assessment; Biosafety concepts in handling of dairy pathogens and setting up of a microbiological/ pathogen lab in a dairy plant.

3.6. Setting up of testing facilities and analytical laboratories; concept of mobile testing laboratories. Accreditation of analytical laboratories.

3.7. Preparation and standardization of reagents required in the analysis of milk and milk products.

3.8. Sampling plan and testing methods for the detection of adulterants, preservatives and neutralizers in milk and milk products.

3.9. Environmental contaminates such as pesticides, antibiotics, heavy metals in milk and milk products; Importance of milk contact surfaces, metallic contamination in dairy industry.

3.10. Concepts of hygiene and sanitation in dairy plant, treatment and disposal of waste water and effluents.

Practice

3.1. Standardization of glass wares for quality analysis.

3.2. Preparation and testing of Gerber sulfuric acid used in fat determination. Testing the amyl alcohol used for fat determination.

3.3. Preparation and standardization of dairy reagents such as acids, alkali solutions etc.

3.4. Chemical analysis of permissible additives used in milk and milk products.

3.5. Chemical analysis of detergents and sanitizers.

3.6. Detection of adulterants, preservatives, and neutralizers in milk and milk products. Analysis of market samples of milk and milk products.

3.7. Determination of temporary and permanent hardness of water.

3.8. Estimation of available chlorine from bleaching powder.

3.9. Rapid detection of antibiotic residues in milk using Delvo SP

3.10. Microbiological tests for assessing Environmental, equipment and personnel hygiene by swab and rinse methods.

3.11. Quality evaluation by HACCP in the preparation of dairy products.

Suggested Readings

  1. Alli, I. (2004). Food Quality Assurance: Principles and Practices. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.
  2. Herschdoerfer, S. M. (2004). Quality Control in the Food Industry. Vol. I & II. Academic Press, London.
  3. Jacobs, M. B. (1999). Chemical Analysis of Food and Food Products. CBS Distributors, New Delhi.
  4. Kramer, A. and Twigg, B. A. (Eds). (1966). Fundamentals of Quality Control for the food industry, The AVI Publ. Co., West Port, Conn., USA.

4. Dairy Products Development (0-3-0)

Practice

4.1. Value addition in paneer by use of spices.

4.2. Preparation of pasteurized milk and flavoured milk

4.3. Preparation of clarified butter

4.4. Preparation of indigenous dairy products (rabidi, khoa, kalakand)

4.5. Manufacture of value added dairy drinks (herbal lassi)

5. Synbiotic Dairy Foods (0-3-0)

Practice

5.1. Preparation of probiotic curd

5.2. Production of synbiotic whey drink and storage

5.3. Preparation and functional properties of synbiotic ice cream

5.4. Biopreservation of dairy foods by metabolites of lactic starter

6. Quality Analysis of Milk and Milk Products (0-3-0)

Practice

6.1. Platform tests of milk in the receiving dock

6.2. Quality evaluation of dairy products

    • Assessment of the quality of  paneer
    • Assessment of the quality of butter and ghee
    • Assessment of the quality of herbal/fermented beverage

6.3. Adulteration detection of milk and dairy products from market

6.4. Detection of presence of vegetable oil in ghee

6.5. Oxidative stability determination in fat rich dairy products i.e ghee, butter

Session Plan for the Entire Domain

Theory

 

Session 1.1: Collection and Transportation of milk: Organization of milk collection routes, practices for collection of milk, preservation at farm, refrigeration, natural microbial inhibitor, reception, chilling, classification and storage.

Session 1.2: Standardization of milk: Addition or removal of milk fat to make different milk products, numericals.

Session 1.3: Mechanical Separation: Sedimentation, Filtration, Centrifugal separation, Bactofugation.

Session 1.4: Homogenization: Classification, power requirement, care and maintenance.

Session 1.5: Pasteurization: Batch, flash and HTST pasteurization

Session 1.6: Packaging machines: Pouch filling machine pre-pack and aseptic filling bulk handling system

Session 1.7: Mixing and agitation: Theory and purpose of mixing, Equipment used

Session 1.8: Evaporation: Basic principles and classification

Session 1.9: Drying: Drum drying, Spray drying

Session 1.10: Membrane processing: Ultra filtration, Reverse Osmosis and electro dialysis, Materials for membrane construction, Ultra filtration of milk, Effect of milk constituents on operation, membranes for electro-dialysis.

Practice

 

Session 1.1: Familiarization with equipments for reception of milk in plant, platform test.

Session 1.2: Cream separation: parts of separator and the process.

Session 1.3: Preparation of special milks: toned and double toned milk.

Session 1.4: Detection of adulterant and preservatives in milk.

Session 1.5: Constructional details, operation and maintenance of homogenizers.

Session 1.6: Assessment of homogenization efficiency in milk.

Session 1.7: Constructional details, operation and maintenance of HTST pasteurizer.

Session 1.8: Constructional details, operation and maintenance of pouch filling machine.

Session 1.9: Constructional details, operation and maintenance of multiple effect evaporator.

Session 1.10: Constructional details, operation and maintenance of spray drier.

Session 1.11: Constructional details, operation and maintenance of reverse osmosis and ultra-filtration system.

Theory

 

Session 2.1: Concept, importance and types of starter cultures in dairy industry.

Session 2.2: Modern trends in propagation, production and preservation methods of starter cultures (liquid, spray drying, vacuum drying, freeze-drying, frozen concentrate, concentrated dried cultures, DVS Starters).

Session 2.3: Metabolism of starter cultures (carbohydrate, protein, citrate).

Session 2.4: Production of metabolites and antibacterial compounds by starters.

Session 2.5: Starter defects and failures.

Session 2.6: Bacteriophages of dairy starters and their impact on dairy industry.

Session 2.7: Lactic acid bacteria as probiotics in development of health foods.

Session 2.8: Role of starters in the preparation of various fermented milks (dahi, yoghurt, acidophilus milk and Yakult) and its associated defects.

Session 2.10: Cheese Starters: Bacterial and mold ripened cheeses, Rennet substitutes.

Practice

 

Session 2.1: Testing  purity  of  starter  cultures  by  Gram’s  staining,  catalase  test;  creatine  test.

Session 2.2: Testing  starter activity by dye reduction tests, Horrell-Elliker, White Head & Cox test.

Session 2.3: Preparation of sterilized reconstituted skim milk and propagation of starter cultures.

Session 2.4: Preservation  of  starter  cultures  by  freeze-drying  techniques.

Session 2.5: Preparation  of  DVS starters.

Session 2.6: Effect of physical factors (temperature, pH, salt and Sugar) on dairy starters.

Session 2.7: Effect of presence of antibiotic residues in milk on starter activity.

Session 2.8: Detection of bacteriophages in cheese whey by plaque assay method.

Session 2.9: Microbial quality of milk for preparation of fermented milks.

Session 2.10: Preparation and microbial examination of dahi, yoghurt and cultured butter milk.

Session 2.11: Analysis of cheese for total spore count.

Theory

 

Session 3.1: Awareness about Quality and Safety of Dairy Foods: Concepts of quality control, quality assurance and food safety; Global quality and food safety standards, Integrated food law, its main features and functions.

Session 3.2: Introduction to Food Safety Management System: Concepts of Quality Management System (QMS)–ISO: 9000:2000, ISO: 22000; Principles of QMS; Standard requirements for QMS

Session 3.3: HACCP concept and principle with special reference to biological hazards in dairy foods, TQM tools and techniques.

Session 3.4: Role of national and international food regulatory systems and standards: with respect to quality and safety of milk and milk products: FSSAI, PFA, AGMARK, BIS ISO, IDF, Codex, etc.

Session 3.5: Introduction of risk assessment; Biosafety concepts in handling of dairy pathogens and setting up of a microbiological/ pathogen lab in a dairy plant.

Session 3.6: Setting up of testing facilities and analytical laboratories; concept of mobile testing laboratories. Accreditation of analytical laboratories.

Session 3.7: Preparation and standardization of reagents required in the analysis of milk and milk products.

Session 3.8: Sampling plan and testing methods for the detection of adulterants, preservatives and neutralizers in milk and milk products.

Session 3.9: Environmental contaminates such as pesticides, antibiotics, heavy metals in milk and milk products; Importance of milk contact surfaces, metallic contamination in dairy industry.

Session 3.10: Concepts of hygiene and sanitation in dairy plant, treatment and disposal of waste water and effluents.

Practice:

 

Session 3.1: Standardization of glass wares for quality analysis.

Session 3.2: Preparation and testing of Gerber sulfuric acid used in fat determination. Testing the amyl alcohol used for fat determination.

Session 3.3: Preparation and standardization of dairy reagents such as acids, alkalis solutions etc.

Session 3.4: Chemical analysis of permissible additives used in milk and milk products.

Session 3.5:Chemical analysis of detergents and sanitizers.

Session 3.6: Detection of adulterants, preservatives, and neutralizers in milk and milk products. Analysis of market samples of milk and milk products.

Session 3.7: Determination of temporary and permanent hardness of water.

Session 3.8: Estimation of available chlorine from bleaching powder.

Session 3.9: Rapid detection of antibiotic residues in milk using Delvo SP

Session 3.10: Microbiological tests for assessing Environmental, equipment and personnel hygiene by swab and rinse methods.

Session 3.11: Quality evaluation by HACCP in the preparation of dairy products.

Practice:

 

Session 4.1: Value addition in paneer by use of spices.

Session 4.2: Preparation of pasteurized milk and flavoured milk.

Session 4.3: Preparation of clarified butter.

Session 4.4: Preparation of indigenous dairy products (rabidi, khoa, kalakand)

Session 4.5: Manufacture of value added dairy drinks (herbal lassi)

Session 5.1: Preparation of probiotic curd.

Session 5.2: Production of synbiotic whey drink and storage.

Session 5.3: Preparation and functional properties of synbiotic ice cream.

Session 5.4: Biopreservation of dairy foods by metabolites of lactic starter.

Session 6.1: Platform tests of milk in the receiving dock.

Session 6.2: Quality evaluation of dairy products

    • Assessment of the quality of  paneer
    • Assessment of the quality of butter and ghee
    • Assessment of the quality of herbal/fermented beverage

Session 6.3: Adulteration detection of milk and dairy products from market.

Session 6.4: Detection of presence of vegetable oil in ghee.

Session 6.5: Oxidative stability determination in fat rich dairy products i.e ghee, butter.

7. Projects in Units/Industry/Lab (0-0-10): To acquire more experience, students will work in the following places:

  • Dairy Processing Units
  • Dairy Industry/Cooperatives
  • Research Institutes

Our Main Teachers

Dr. Rajashree Jena is currently working as Assistant Professor in the Department of Dairy Technology, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi Campus, Odisha. She has obtained her Ph. D degree from National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal in the field of Dairy Microbiology. She has more than 3 years of research and teaching experience at […]