Mammography and Ultrasound

Teacher

Dr Nooka Raju Chintala

Category

Core Courses

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Course Name : Mammography and Ultrasound

Code(Credit) : APRIT 304 (3-0-1)

Course Objectives

  • To obtain Knowledge about the preparation and positioning of the patient during the imaging.
  • To familiarize the student with the requirements and principles of imaging of the breast using X-ray mammography.
  • To develop the technical skills of ultrasound, and doppler techniques to bring good quality images for better analysis.

Learning Outcomes

  • Can acquire knowledge to perform the positions of the patient during the imaging
  • One can technically know the functionality of the mammography, Ultrasound, and Doppler techniques to work with the patient in real-time.

Course Syllabus

Module-1: Anatomy and Physiology:

a. Breast Margins, b. Nipple, c. Areola, d. Montgomery's glands
Internal anatomy - a. Glandular tissue, b. Parenchyma, c. Connective tissue, d. Pectoralis muscle

 

Module-2: Positioning:

Cranio-caudal, Medio-lateral oblique, 90-degree lateral, medio-lateral and latero-medial, Latero-medial oblique, Caudal-cranial. Exaggerated cranial-caudal, Spot compression, Cleavage, Tangential, Axillary tail

 

Module-3: Professional ethics and patient care:

Patient preparation, care of special patient populations: patient concerns, early detection, patient education, visual inspection- areas of interest (perimeter, nipples, lymph nodes);

Module-4: Technical aspects of mammography:

Breast composition; fundamental of image quality; methods of improving image quality, Image receptor, screen//film combination; cathode (purpose, effect on focal spot, orientation),focal spot size; anode/target (purpose, material, anode angle,, line focus principle, heel effect);  window material, filtration, source-to-image distance; use of grids, magnification; compression (pressure settings,, hand versus foot pedal use)

 

Module-5: Ultrasound

Principle & history of Ultrasound, advantages and disadvantages of ultrasound, Types of Ultrasound, Equipment description,

Indication and Clinical Application, Physics of ultrasound imaging, Physics of transducers, Physics of Doppler, Ultrasound tissue characterization, Potential for three-dimensional ultrasound, Artifacts in ultrasound, Comparison of ultrasound equipment Computerization of data, Image recording, Ultrasound jelly & Safety of ultrasound

 

Module-6: Abdomen and pelvis ultrasound & USG Contrast Media

Pathologies and indications, patient preparation, positioning and scanning technique. Types of Ultrasound Contrast media and its advantages

Module-7: Color Doppler imaging, The obstetric Ultrasound examination

Doppler effect, Doppler ultrasound applications; CWD, PWD, Color Doppler Method of gynecologic ultrasound examination, Assessment of Normal fetal growth, fetal behavior states, fetal breathing movements, fetal cardiac activity

Text Books:

1.     Basic Radiology Physics –K.Thayalan,

2.     Full Field Digital Mammography [Print Replica] Kindle Edition by A. Jain (Author)

3.   Step by Step Ultrasound Hardcover – 1 January 2010 by Satish K. Bhargava (Author)

Session 2

Anatomy of Montgomery''s glands, Internal anatomy - Glandular tissue, Parenchyma

https://www.slideshare.net/MehulTandel/glands-histology-122876029

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VeRwIb4zaoQ

Session 3

Internal anatomy -Connective tissue, Pectoralis muscle

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eqili7fRujI

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zQTw_PVzdOQ

Session 4

Positioning - Cranio-caudal, Medio-lateral oblique, 90-degree lateral, medio-lateral and latero-medial

POSITION & TERMINOLOGY RadiographicAnatomyA&P12

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQUMJ6Gh9Bw

Session 5

Latero-medial oblique, Caudal-cranial. Exaggerated cranial-cauda

Mammographic positions - Material

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ohkit3g58Q

Session 6

Spot compression, Cleavage, Tangential, Axillary tail

Mammography-Physics and Technique-PDF

Mammo for Techs Positioning pdf

Session 7

Professional ethics and patient care - patient preparation, care of special patient populations

Ethics and Patient care standards-pdf

Session 8

patient concerns, early detection, patient education

Ethics and Patient care standards-pdf

Session 9

visual inspection- areas of interest (perimeter, nipples, lymph nodes)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t8X3w-d6NPE

Session 10

Technical aspects of mammographyBreast composition

Technical aspects of mammography

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t8X3w-d6NPE

Session 11

Fundamental of image quality; methods of improving image quality

Fundamentals of image quality pdf

Session 12

Image receptor, screen//film combination

IMAGE RECEPTORS-pdf

Session 13

cathode (purpose, effect on focal spot, orientation),focal spot size

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iIwmuBJrytU

Session 14

Anode/target (purpose, material, anode angle,, line focus principle, heel effect)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M9S1ULdwav8

Session 15

Window material, filtration, source-to-image distance

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WfGGGG5VqgM&t=435s

Session 16

Use of grids, magnification; compression (pressure settings,, hand versus foot pedal use)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=obj3wpQfb8s

mammography-physicsandtechnique pdf

Session 17

Principle & history of Ultrasound, advantages and disadvantages of ultrasound

Principle of Ultrasound

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cI7ULKNhVcw

Session 18

Session 19

Indication and Clinical Application, Physics of ultrasound imaging

Ultra Sound physics - pdf

Session 21

Ultrasound tissue characterization, Potential for three-dimensional ultrasound

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=suK3vIlcyk4

Session 22

Artifacts in ultrasound, Comparison of ultrasound equipment Computerization of data

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HnG1GieOkUk

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3H22-AyblIk

Session 23

Image recording, Ultrasound jelly & Safety of ultrasound

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I1Bdp2tMFsY

Session 24

Abdomen and pelvis ultrasound

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YJOu_Dbx0ao

Session 25

Pathologies and indications, patient preparation

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J5gRFeZ7cZU

Session 26

Positioning and scanning technique

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9LjtPWfsjFw

Session 27

Types of Ultrasound Contrast media and its advantages

Ultrasound Contrast Agents-pdf

Session 28

Doppler effect, Doppler ultrasound applications

Doppler Effect

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VcwZ3N9anzc

Session 29

CWD, PWD, Color Doppler Method of gynecologic ultrasound examination

CWD, PWD, Color Doppler Method

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SUavOb5Y3NY

Session 30

Assessment of Normal fetal growth, fetal behavior states

Assessment of Normal fetal growth, fetal behavior states

Session 31

Case Studies

Case Studies

Case Studies

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    Working as Associate Professor and Head, Department of Radiology, CUTM-AP, Vizianagaram from Jun-2018 to till date. Having an experience of 15 years in teaching and research. Earlier worked as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering in various reputed Engineering colleges at Rajahmundry (for about five years) and  Visakhapatnam (for about eight years), […]