Physical Pharmaceutics-I (Theory)


Dinesh Kumar Sharma


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Course Name : Physical Pharmaceutics-I

Code(Credit) : BPHT2102(4-0-0)

Course Objectives

The course deals with the various physical and physicochemical properties, and principles involved in dosage forms/formulations. Theory and practical components of the subject help the student to get a better insight into various areas of formulation research and development, and stability studies of pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Learning Outcomes

Upon the completion of the course student shall be able to

  1. Understand various physicochemical properties of drug molecules in the designing the dosage forms
  2. Know the principles of chemical kinetics & to use them for stability testing and determination of expiry date of formulations
  3. Demonstrate use of physicochemical properties in the formulation development and evaluation of dosage forms

Course Syllabus

Module I:

Solubility of drugs: Solubility expressions, mechanisms of solute solvent interactions, ideal solubility parameters, solvation & association, factors influencing solubility of drugs, quantitative approach to the solubility, diffusion principles in biological systems.

Module II:

Solubility of gas in liquids, solubility of liquids in liquids, (Binary solutions, ideal solutions) Raoult’s law, real solutions. Partially miscible liquids, Critical solution temperature and applications. Distribution law, its limitations and applications.

Module III:

States of Matter and properties of matter: State of matter, changes in the state of matter, latent heats, vapour pressure, sublimation critical point, eutectic mixtures, gases, Aerosols–inhalers, relative humidity, liquid complexes, liquid crystals, glassy states, solid-crystalline, amorphous & polymorphism.

Module IV:

Physicochemical properties of drug molecules: Refractive index, optical rotation, dielectric constant, dipole moment, dissociation constant, determinations and applications.

Module V:

Surface and interfacial phenomenon: Liquid interface, surface & interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface & interfacial tensions, spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB Scale, solubilisation, detergency, adsorption at solid interface.

Module VI:

Complexation and protein binding: Introduction, Classification of Complexation, Applications, methods of analysis, protein binding, Complexation and drug action, crystalline structures of complexes and thermodynamic treatment of stability constants.

Module VII:

pH,buffers and Isotonic solutions: Sorensen’s pH scale, pH determination (electrometric and calorimetric), applications of buffers, buffer equation, buffer capacity, buffers in pharmaceutical and biological systems, buffered isotonic solutions.

Recommended Books

1. Physical Pharmacy by Alfred Martin
2. Experimental Pharmaceutics by Eugene, Parott.
3. Tutorial Pharmacy by Cooper and Gunn.
4. Stocklosam J. Pharmaceutical Calculations, Lea &Febiger, Philadelphia.
5. Liberman H.A, Lachman C., Pharmaceutical Dosage forms, Tablets, Volume-1 to
3, MarcelDekkar Inc.
6. Liberman H.A, Lachman C, Pharmaceutical Dosage forms. Disperse
systems, volume 1, 2, 3. Marcel Dekkar Inc.
7. Physical Pharmaceutics by Ramasamy C and ManavalanR.
8. LaboratoryManual of Physical Pharmaceutics, C.V.S. Subramanyam, J.
Thimma settee
9. Physical Pharmaceutics by C.V.S. Subramanyam
10. Test book of Physical Phramacy, by Gaurav Jain & Roop K. Khar

Session Plan

Session 1

Solubility of drugs: Solubility expressions

1. solubility

1. Physlcal-Pharmacy

Session 2

Mechanisms of solute solvent interactions, ideal solubility parameters, solvation & association

2. Solvent- solute interactions

2.1. Solubility and the Solution Process

Session 3

Factors influencing solubility of drugs

3. Factors Affecting Solubility

Session 4

Quantitative approach to the solubility

4. Measurement of Solubility

Session 5

Solubility enhancement techniques

5. drugSolubility_ketansavjani

Session 6

Diffusion principles in biological systems

6. Clinical Relavance of solubility

Session 7

Solubility of gas in liquids, solubility of liquids in liquids, (Binary solutions, ideal solutions)

7. ideal and real solutions

Session 8

Raoult’s law, real solutions

8. Solubility of Liquids In Liquids

Session 9

Partially miscible liquids

9. partially misible liquids

Session 10

Critical solution temperature and applications

10. Critical solution temperature and applications

Session 11

Distribution law, its limitations and applications

11. Distribution Law

Session 12

State of matter, Chemical Interactions, changes in the state of matter

12. States of matter

12. statesofmatter

Session 13

Solid state, Crystalline, amorphous, polymorphism

13. statesofmatter, solids

Session 14

Liquid State, Boiling, Heat of Vaporization & critical temperature

14. statesofmatter, Liquids

Session 15

latent heats, vapour pressure, eutectic mixtures

15. Latent heat, Vapour pressure, eutectic mixture

Session 16

Gases, Ideal Gas, Sublimation/ Liquefaction, Aerosols–inhalers, relative humidity

16. statesofmatter, Gases

Session 17

Liquid complexes, liquid crystals, glassy states

17. statesofmatter, Liquid Crystals

Session 18

Physicochemical properties of drug molecules

18. Physicochemical properties of drug

Session 19

Refractive index, optical rotation


Session 20

Dielectric constant, dipole moment, dissociation constant

Session 21

Determination of of Physicochemical properties of drug molecules

21. physicochemical properties & determination

Session 22

Applications of Physicochemical properties of drug molecules

Drug discovery, design and development3

Session 23

Liquid interface, surface & interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface & interfacial tensions

21. Interfacial Phenomena

21. Liquid-liquid interface

Session 24

Spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces

24. Liquid-liquid interface

Session 25

surface active agents, solubilisation, detergency

25. Surface active agents

Session 26

Adsorption at solid interface, HLB Scale, Wetting

26. Adsorption

Session 27

Introduction, Classification of Complexation, Applications

27. commplexation

27. Complexation

Session 28

Methods of analysis

28. method of analysis

Session 29

Protein binding

29. Protein Binding

Session 30

Complexation and drug action

30. Importance of complexation and drug action

Session 31

Crystalline structures of complexes and thermodynamic treatment of stability constants

31. stability constant of complexes

Session 32

pH, Sorensen’s pH scale

32. pH, Buffers and Isotonic solution

Session 33

pH determination (electrometric and calorimetric)

33. pH, Buffers and Isotonic solution-2

Session 34

Applications of buffers

34. pH, Buffers and Isotonic solution-7

Session 35

Buffer equation, buffer capacity, buffers in pharmaceutical and biological systems

35. pH, Buffers and Isotonic solution

Session 36

Buffered isotonic solutions

36. pH, Buffers and Isotonic solution-5

Case Studies

Case Studies

Our Main Teachers

M. Pharm (Pharmaceutics)